Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan
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300 Galleria Parkway, Atlanta, GA 30339
Fruit plantations in Honduras and Brazil (Honduras: the Making of a Banana Republic, by Alison Acker, South End Press, 1988, p. 68).
Owned by RJR (RJ Reynolds); see also Kohlberg Kravis Roberts.
Despite years of controversy caused by the diversion of the Danube and the resulting destruction of wetlands and bayous and much of northwest Hungary's water supply, it was announced in November 1990 by the Czech government that the Gabcikovo dam on the River Danube would be completed. Czechoslovakia, dependent on acid rain-causing lignite coal, and criticized for building nuclear power plants, is under pressure to produce hydroelectricity. Upstream towards Budapest, Hungary began building the Nagymaros dam, but it was put on hold after the 1989 revolutions (New Scientist, Dec. 1990, p. 25).
Port near Vladivostok. Being eyed for development by a hundred South Korean companies, led by Kohap (Business Week, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 53-54).
NAM YANG TIMBER PTY, LTD.
Papua New Guinea
Nam Yang is owned by Halla Resources (Halla Pulp and Paper Co., Ltd). Halla is a South Korean conglomerate owned, in turn, by Hyundai Corporation.
NANYOZAI FREIGHT AGREEMENT
Japanese cartel dominating the Sabah, Malaysia timber trade (San Francisco Chronicle This World, Oct. 1, 1989, p. 14-15).
NANZAI SHOJI LTD.
Plywood and blockboards operation at Batanghari, Sumatra, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).
NARMADA RIVER DAMS
Dozens of dams are proposed for construction on the Narmada River in Gujarat, India.
Sardar Sarovar Nigam Ltd. is the semi-governmental body overseeing the Narmada Dam project designed by Gujarat State Irrigation Department and the Central Water Commission of India. Construction began in 1987 and is expected to take 18 years. Hitachi, Sumitomo, and Toshiba have been awarded contracts to supply turbines for Sardar Sarovar, the World Bank-backed project of up to 30 major and 3000 smaller dams on the Narmada River in Gujarat state in western India. The project could eventually flood 865,000 acres of forest and 500,000 acres of farmland and cause the relocation of a million people. The Japanese government also provided financing (Seattle Times, Apr.20, 1990).
The purpose of the project is to irrigate four million acres and deliver drinking water and hydroelectricity. The World Bank had provided $450 million of the estimated $6 billion cost when a report critical of the project was released on June 18, 1992. The review had been requested by then-World Bank president Barber Conable. The report concluded that "engineering and economic imperatives have driven the project to the exclusion of human and environmental concerns," which include malaria. It said that assessment and mitigation of various impacts had been insufficient, and there was "great hostility" by local residents. The report urged the Bank to reconsider its funding, but current world Bank president Lewis Preston was quoted as saying "continued bank support for the Narmada projects is justified" if "practical ways" can be found to ensure a "fully responsible approach to the resettlement and environmental concerns" (Engineering News Record, June 29, 1992, p. 10-11). In March 1993, with the dam half completed, it was announced that India had requested that the Bank cancel the remainder of its loan, originally made in 1985 (Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1992 and Apr. 1993, p. 4). India could not meet Bank deadlines for environmental and resettlement standards; it claims it will continue the $3 billion project on its own (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 84, May 1993).
Maheshwar Dam: "For the past two years, rural families in India's Narmada Valley have braved police brutality in a courageous non-violent struggle to stop construction of the Maheshwar Dam. If built, the Maheshwar Dam will submerge some of the richest agricultural lands in India and destroy the livelihoods of 40,000 farmers, fishers and craftspeople. The Maheshwar Dam is one of 30 "large" dams proposed for construction along with 3,100 smaller dams on the Narmada River. Proponents of the Narmada dams claim that they will supply desperately needed drinking and irrigation water, and generate power for rural communities in three states. Critics, including award-winning novelist Arundhati Roy, point out that historically, India's dams have "usurped the resources of the countryside and taken them to the city to serve a metropolitan elite." Millions of rural people will lose their livelihoods through the damming of the Narmada River. The World Bank found that resettlement of these displaced people was "not possible," and cancelled its loans for one of the large Narmada dams. The "Save the Narmada Movement," defined by Arundhati Roy as "a rag-tag army of the poorest people in one of the world's poorest countries," vigorously opposes construction of the "large" dams. Protesters have taken over the Maheshwar Dam site 8 times in the last 2 years, barricaded all roads leading to the dam for 3 months, and held mass demonstrations and indefinite hunger strikes opposing the dam. Thousands have been arrested and beaten. Twice, Global Response issued Emergency Actions calling on the Indian government to guarantee the safety of non-violent protesters at the Maheshwar Dam site. Last spring, the persistent protests persuaded 2 German power utilities to withdraw 49% of the project equity, bringing construction on the dam to a halt. But now the German government is considering approval of a $133 million loan guarantee for the Maheshwar Dam. If this guarantee is approved by the German export credit agency, Hermes, it will signal other investors and companies to get involved." (Global Response Action # 6/99, December 1999).
In March 2000, the International Rivers Network wrote to New York-based Ogden Corporation "calling on the company to withdraw from a highly controversial dam project on India's Narmada River. The letter is endorsed by 124 organizations from 27 countries. Ogden signed a Memorandum of Intent [on] March 23, to develop the Maheshwar Dam, as part of U.S. President Bill Clinton's state visit to India... The dam's serious financial risks and the intense opposition to it caused U.S. power utility PacifiCorp to back out of the project in 1998, and German utilities Bayernwerk and VEW Energie to pull out in April 1999... Ogden Energy is a wholly-owned unit of Ogden Corporation which has interests in the airline services, entertainment, environmental and energy sectors. The company has no experience with large dam projects. Its current portfolio contains only six small hydroelectric dams (four in the US and two in Costa Rica) with an average generating capacity of about 20 megawatts each." (International Rivers Network news release, March 27, 2000).
For more information:
Chittaroopa Palit, Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), Badwani, Madhya, Pradesh, telephone +91-272 9022464 e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Shripad Dharmadhikary, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Baroda, Gujarat, telephone +91-265-382232 e-mail email@example.com
Venu Govindu, Friends of the Narmada, New Jersey, http://www.narmada.org
International Rivers Network http://www.irn.org US-based nongovernmental organization which supports local communities working to protect their rivers and watersheds. IRN works to halt destructive river development projects, and to encourage equitable and sustainable methods of meeting needs for water, energy and flood management.
Patrick McCully, Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams (Zed Books, London).
Partners in the Camberwell Coal Joint Venture include Navidale Pty Ltd., Toyota Tsusho Mining (Australia), and Dia Coal Mining Australia. Open cut coal mine opened in May 1991 in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia; the coal is exported to Japan. Main Northern Railway connects to Newcastle
Port (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 20).
NEO ENERGY see Avila Petroleum
Gold and silver mining in Nevada, Idaho, and Colorado.
The Mineral Policy Center, publisher of Clementine: the Journal of Responsible Mineral Development, has an Environmental Report Card on Nerco; write to MPC at 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Room 550, Washington DC 20005.
Ave. Nestle 55, CH-1800 Vevey, Switzerland
Nestle Foods, 100 Manhattanville Rd., Purchase NY 10577
From Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992 (p. 242): Started with condensed milk in 1866. Infant formula by 1867. 1920 investment in a Brazilian milk facility led to inventing instant coffee (1938). Acquisitions beginning in the 1960s have included Stouffer hotels and frozen foods; Beech-Nut (sold to Ralston-Purina in 1989); Carnation; Hills Bros. and MJB coffee; and joint ventures in marketing with Coca-Cola. 1990 sales of $46 billion.
Nestle has been selling infant formula since the 1800s (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992). The risk of death (by malnutrition and infection) for infants who do not breastfeed is ten to fifteen times higher in the first three to four months of life. In 1984, Nestle signed an agreement to abide by the World Health Organization/UNICEF International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes, to end a seven-year, worldwide boycott. But the formula industry, led by Nestle and American Home Products, regularly breaks the codes on labeling, advertising (including free samples), and promotion in health care facilities (Multinational Monitor, Mar. 1992 p. 9-13).
Neste has a joint venture with Hexza Corporation to invest $26 million in a plant in Sarawak, Malaysia, to produce formaldehyde-based resins for the plywood industry in Sabah and Sarawak (Asian Timber, June 1992 and July 1992, p. 7).
NEVADA ENERGY COMPANY
989 Bible Way, Reno NV 89502-9919
International operations in geothermal, wind, and gas-fired energy projects (company advertisment. Nov. 1993).
NEW HOPE GROUP
In the Multi Harapan Utan joint venture with Indonesian companies on coal export from Busang mine on East Kalimantan, west of Samarinda (Mining Magazine, Mar 1992, p. 150).
7-5, Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku Tokyo 104,Japan
telephone (03) 3563-1111
Pulp, paper, packaging, lumber, and real estate corporation tied to the Mitsui trading house; New Oji was formed from the 1993 merger of Kanzaki, Honshu, and Chuetsu; the merger gave New Oji the second and third largest sales of world pulp and paper. Has plantatiuons and/or mills in Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Viet Nam, Brazil, Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, and Canada.
Mitsui and Oji Paper have a 100,000-hectare concession and sawtimber operation at Selar Panjang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Imports chips from ChipDeco in Kalimantan.
Carrere and Lohmann, 1996, Pulping the South, p. 33, 108-109.
SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage.
NEW YORK TIMES COMPANY
Newspapers, television and radio broadcasting, magazines, information services, and pulp and paper operations in Canada and Maine.
Long controlled by the Sulzberger family.
Sources of information:
Susan Tifft and Alex Jones, The Trust: The Private and Powerful Family Behind the New York Times (Boston: Little Brown, 2000).
NEW ZEALAND DAIRY BOARD
Negotiating to sell Russian coal to pay for its dairy sales to Kemorova, Siberia (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 105).
NEWMAN LUMBER CO.
Box 2580, Gulfport, Mississippi 39505
"Serving the World with Mahogany and Other Tropical Woods." Imports and Honduras and African Mahogany, South American Oak, Spanish Cedar, and other species.
"Reacting to what the government said was unauthorized logging by a U.S. company, Peru's president has deployed the military in an Amazon frontier region and declared wide swaths of Peru's jungle protected zones. Peru's armed forces were dispatched this week to Inapari, near the borders with Brazil and Bolivia, and President Alberto Fujimori declared an "environmental state of emergency'' on Thursday. The moves came after loggers working for a U.S. company "irrationally and without authorization extracted mahogany valued at between $37 million and $40 million, " the government said in a statement Friday. "The exploitation of resources will take place under certain conditions, " Fujimori said. ``That is to say, in a sustainable manner, which means that with time the resources will be renovated and our forests will not be depleted.'' But the president of a U.S. lumber company working in the region said his company recently won a ruling in its favor from Peru's Supreme Court and was about to restart production after the government shut down the operation nine months ago. "As far as I understand, everything was legal, and it went through the court system, " said Roy Newman, president of Newman Lumber Company of Mississippi. He said the government wrongly accused his company of employing local loggers who armed themselves and caused disturbances in Inapari, a jungle village 500 miles east of the capital, Lima. "As far as I know, there is no civil disturbance in the area at all, " he said. "We were invited in to work in the area and all the people seemed happy with it. " Fujimori's decree making parts of the jungle protected reserve areas affects three Amazon regions. Two are located in the central jungle, covering a combined area of 13.6 million acres. The other is a 2 million acre swath of jungle in the far northeastern corner of the country near the border with Colombia." (Associated Press, Peru Seeks To Stem Amazon Logging, July 7, 2000).
1700 Lincoln St, Denver CO 80203
World's biggest gold producer, with operations in the United States, Australia, Peru, Indonesia, Canada, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Bolivia, New Zealand and Mexico.
Major Shareholders (as of Sept 2004)
Shares Held by Insiders and 5% Owners: 10%
Shares Held by Institutional & Mutual Fund Owners: 68%
Top Institutional Holders
FMR (Fidelity Management & Research)
Capital Research and Management
Top Mutual Fund Holders
New Perspective Fund
Investment Company of America
Exploring Mallon Resources's Rio Chiquito gold and silver mine in northern Costa Rica (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 179).
Newmont has been mining in Indonesia since the 1980s, including the Batu Hijau copper-gold mine on Sumbawa Island and the Minahasa gold mine in Sulawesi (Engineering & Mining Journal, March 1992, p. 13).
Newmont's Minahasa gold mine at Buyat Bay has resulted in "a political brawl pitting Indonesia's feisty environmental groups against the American mining giant, which has been trailed by allegations of pollution on four continents." (Spurred by Illness, Indonesians Lash Out at U.S. Mining Giant, By Jane Perlez and Evelyn Rusli, New York Times, Sept 8, 2004).
Poison Control, Boston Globe editorial, Sept 13, 2004"POISONS LIKE arsenic, mercury, and lead are the dangerous dross of gold mining. Locked in rock with the precious metal, they go out with the waste tailings. In a coastal village in Indonesia, residents believe that tailings from a gold mine owned by a US firm, Newmont Mining Corp., have sickened them and killed or contaminated the fish that provided their livelihood. Newmont's mine in the Minahasa region of Indonesia, the focus of a New York Times article last week, is just one of several projects around the globe where the company, the world's biggest producer of gold, is being criticized for its disposal practices. In Peru last Friday, farmers blocked a highway to stop exploration by Newmont in an area where several hundred people had to be treated for a mercury spill in 2000. In Indonesia, official protests are coming too late for the villagers of Buyat Bay, where the mine is depleted and Newmont is wrapping up its operations. A legal aid group is suing Newmont for $543 million in damages. The company denies it is polluting the villagers' bay or adversely affecting their health. It says a World Health Organization study of the causes of villagers' ills is still pending. At a time when the governments of many developing countries lack the resources or integrity to stop harmful practices, the best prevention is stronger regulation by the international organizations that provide financing for projects in low-income countries. Unfortunately, environmental activists believe that the draft guidelines of the International Finance Corporation, which is part of the World Bank, are too weak to stop the kind of ocean dumping that Newmont used in Indonesia. The guidelines would have been stronger if the corporation had adapted recommendations made in 2003 by the Extractive Industries Review, which had been commissioned by the World Bank to explore standards for oil and gas drilling and mining. The review advises against disposal of mine tailings "in coastal waters used by indigenous peoples and local communities for subsistence." In the United States, environmental officials could invoke the Clean Water Act to control such toxic waste disposal. According to Paula Palmer of Global Response, a Colorado-based environmental organization, Newmont did not use International Finance Corporation assistance in the Minahasa project. But she said the corporation's guidelines are critical even in projects without corporation support because other public and private financiers and export-credit agencies use them as a standard. Gold mining and other extractive industries are by their very nature short-lived. But the legacy of poison they can leave behind lasts for generations. The international community should insist on environmental standards that look to the future and not just to the bottom line." (Boston Globe, Sept 13, 2004).
Report Heightens Pollution Dispute at Indonesian Bay, By Jane Perlez, New York Times, Nov 9, 2004A government panel presented a bitterly fought-over report on Monday showing that sediment in the equatorial bay where the world's biggest gold producer, Newmont Mining Corporation, deposited mine waste is polluted with significant levels of arsenic and mercury. But the panel found the water quality met Indonesian standards.
The report, written by more than a dozen technical specialists, found that fish from the bay were laced with enough arsenic to make them dangerous for consumption, particularly for children. It recommended that the Health Ministry "look into arsenic poisoning" by conducting more tests on villagers who have complained of rashes, lumps, breathing difficulties and dizziness. It also said the government should consider moving the villagers from an area it "categorized as possessing high risks for human health."
The findings are the latest of several studies on Buyat Bay, on Sulawesi island, where villagers filed a $543 million lawsuit against Newmont in August, contending that waste, called tailings, from a nearby gold mine had caused serious illnesses, including in the mother of an infant who died, and the ruin of their income from fishing.
Newmont, based in Denver, vigorously denies having polluted the bay and attributes the villagers' illnesses to poor nutrition and sanitation. It disputed many of the report's findings, which were available in draft form last week and were in the document presented Monday to the environment minister, Rachmar Witoelar, and a 12-member steering committee.
The final report, which is expected to be released to the public on Wednesday, was made available to The New York Times by a member of the steering committee.
Asked for comment on the findings, Newmont's vice president for environmental affairs, David A. Baker, issued a statement through a spokesman. "The presence of arsenic in tailings sediment was addressed in the premining environmental impact statement and shown to be of no harm to the environment," it said. "The system has worked as designed, as is confirmed by three previous scientific studies and eight years of monitoring data showing no contamination in the water or fish of Buyat Bay. We believe the scientific data in the government report when released will confirm those facts."
The dispute has created a public furor in Indonesia, resulting in the jailing of five senior Newmont employees, who have since been released. For Newmont, the stakes concern not only the reputation of a mammoth American company with global holdings reported to be larger than England, but also a potential challenge to its operations at a far more valuable gold and copper mine on another Indonesian island, Sumbawa.
Points of Contention
Among the stark disagreements between the findings and Newmont's position was that the arsenic had entered the bottom-feeding organisms, known as benthos, which provide food for fish. The report advised that villagers reduce their consumption of fish from the bay, their primary source of food.
In a telephone interview from Denver on Saturday, Mr. Baker said the arsenic levels were basically irrelevant because the arsenic was a kind that would not dissolve in water and enter the food chain. Newmont said that it disagreed with the way the arsenic and mercury levels in the fish were calculated and that it believed that the benthos were not polluted.
The fish were of a quality "you find any place in the world," Mr. Baker said. "We knew the science and predicted that the tailings would be stable in the environment and will not cause harm to the environment and will not cause harm to humans."
Emil Salim, a former minister of environment who is on the steering committee, disagreed. "This report says 'yes' there is pollution because there is abnormally high arsenic in the sediment, in the benthos, in the fish and in the ground water," he said.
A member of the panel, Hilmi Salim, the coordinator of the center for natural resources at Padjadjaran University, said Newmont was "hiding the dark side and only showing the white side," by emphasizing data that supported its case, particularly on water quality standards, while ignoring data that showed pollution, like those on the sediment.
An independent American hydrogeologist, Robert E. Moran, who advises the mining industry and environmental groups, reviewed the findings at the request of The New York Times. He disputed Mr. Baker's contention that the arsenic was "not biologically available in the food chain."
Bottom-dwellling benthic organisms were capable of consuming contaminants like arsenic even as solid particles, Mr. Moran said.
"By neglecting the sediment, the company chooses to disregard the evidence that potentially toxic concentrations of chemicals, both in solution and as particles, are accumulating on the bottom of Buyat Bay," Mr. Moran said.
A Newmont spokesman, Kasan Mulyono, noted that Indonesia had no guidelines for heavy metals in sediment, therefore "Newmont's focus is not on that subject."
"Newmont has followed the regulations by measuring metals in water," Mr. Mulyono said.
Mr. Salim, the steering committee member, said the specialists who presented the report to the steering committee showed photographs of people from the village, Buyat Pante, with heavy rashes and lumps, and described the symptoms as resembling those from exposure to arsenic.
Residents said an infant from the village died in July, six months after being born covered with lumps and wrinkled skin. The mother was among three villagers who sued Newmont seeking damages with the help of a local legal aid group, Agency for Health Law. The cause of the baby's death remains uncertain, and no autopsy was performed. A doctor who had examined the baby before her death diagnosed her condition as a skin ailment and malnutrition.
Agus Pasaribu, a lawyer with the legal aid group that brought the case on behalf of the villagers, said the two sides were in "mediation" and discussing compensation and treatment for the villagers. A Newmont spokesman confirmed that the two sides were in mediation but, he said, compensation was not being discussed.
A Longstanding Concern
Mr. Witolear, the environment minister, acknowledged he was in a difficult position. "I'd like to maintain my objectivity," he said. "I don't want to be part of throwing investors out of Indonesia, and yet you have to give protection to the victims."
He added that the results of the government panel's study would be handed to prosecutors in Manado, the provincial capital that is home to the mine. Prosecutors there have been determining whether to bring a criminal case against the company.
A prominent human rights lawyer, Mulia Lubis, said in an interview on Friday that he had been retained by Newmont as a legal adviser. He said he had told Richard Ness, the president of Newmont, in Indonesia, to be prepared for a legal fight to clear its name.
Even before the suit was brought, the Indonesian Environment Ministry had been concerned about the levels of arsenic.
In 2000, four years after the Minahasa Raya mine opened, the ministry wrote in an internal memorandum that the arsenic levels in bay fish were "found to be alarming." After drawn out discussions with the company, the ministry demanded in a letter in 2002 that Newmont take immediate steps to improve waste treatment.
A number of documents, including letters and requests from the Environment Ministry to Newmont asking the company to meet standards for a permit to deposit the waste, were released with the report on Monday. Newmont says that it operated with all the permits it needed.
Environmentalists point to the case as an example of the weakness in regulating big multinational companies in a nation that has traditionally welcomed foreign companies to exploit its abundant resources. The report recommended that "the government tighten monitoring of future mining activities."
The findings come on the heels of an announcement on Friday by Newmont. which posted a 12 percent jump in third-quarter profits, that it would not go ahead with the expansion of its gold mine in Peru, saying it had misunderstood the depth of local opposition.
In Indonesia, the mine above Buyat Bay stopped production, as scheduled, in August. But the company's far richer Sumbawa mine, which opened in 1999, is expected to operate for another 15 years, according to company projections.
In a 1997 interview in Forbes magazine, Ronald C. Cambre, then Newmont's chief executive officer, said the mine had the potential to generate $90 million a year in free cash flow for 20 years, based on a gold price of $350 an ounce. Gold prices averaged $403.78 in the third quarter.
According to Newmont's estimates before the Sumbawa mine opened, the company pumps tens of thousands of tons more a day of treated mine waste into the ocean there than it did at Buyat Bay, though farther out to sea and at a greater depth. Both sites use the same system, known as submarine tailing disposal.
According to William Riley, regional director of the Environmental Protection Agency in Seattle, who has written opinions on the system, submarine tailing disposal is effectively banned in the United States under the Clean Water Act.
Newmont maintains that the system is safe and could be used in the United States, under proper conditions and with exemptions from the law, though none have ever been granted. The report presented Monday recommended that Indonesia's government "refrain from issuing licenses for similar activities."
It also found that Newmont had deposited the tailings waste in waters shallower and warmer than it had pledged in its initial environmental impact assessment.
Before opening the mine, Newmont said the waste would be deposited at 82 meters, where, it said, the waste would not move around or be consumed by marine organisms. Newmont says the waste remained in a stable position.
In the telephone interview, Mr. Baker of Newmont said the waste had risen to 70 meters, a variation that he said had been predicted in the premining assessment.
This latest report was used as ammunition by both sides, as have earlier studies of the condition of the bay, including one paid for by Newmont and conducted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Australia, a government body known as Csiro.
This latest study was considered to be the most comprehensive and independent, however. The findings came from a broad range of tests on the bay waters, sediment on the bay floor and samples from a variety of fish and the benthos, the bottom-dwelling marine organisms.
The government panel included a Newmont representative along with members of environmental groups, university scientists, and members of the ministries of the environment and mineral resources.
An incomplete version of the study was released last month by the departing Environment Minister, Nabile Makirim. Newmont praised that early version, saying that it represented a "complete vindication" and confirmed that "Newmont has told the truth."
When he released the report, Mr. Makirim said, "If there is no pollution, then there is no polluting."
Masnellyarti Hilman, the chairwoman of the panel and a senior official at the Environment Ministry who has been involved with overseeing Newmont's activities since the 1990's, said Mr. Makirim released the incomplete report without the permission of the panel.
Then, as now, the company focused its statements on the bay waters, rather than the contamination of the sediment. The results of the latest report showed that arsenic levels in the sediment ranged from as low as 2.3 to as high as 666 parts per million. The average was 338 parts per million.
It compared the levels to the standards for other nations in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, which define arsenic pollution as 50 to 300 parts per million. For mercury, it said that tests in the "disposal zone also yielded polluted sediment" under Asean standards.
The Newmont-financed Csiro study found arsenic levels in the sediment at two areas near where the mine waste was discharged of 466 and 678 parts per million, said Mr. Moran, the American specialist, after reviewing that report.
Another study, which Newmont said exonerated the company, was conducted under the auspices of the World Health Organization, with the expertise of the Minimata Institute in Japan. A W.H.O. technical adviser, Jan Speets, said the study was mostly intended to see if villagers suffered Minimata disease, which is caused by acute methylmercury poisoning. It found none.
A toxicologist, John Paulus, from Sam Ratulangi University in North Sulawesi, who was a member of the government panel said Monday in an interview that he was dissenting from the latest findings. Mr. Paulus, who was interviewed at the request of Newmont, said that he believed that the point of the study was to deal with Minamata disease and that it had already been discounted.
"There is a clear result from the World Health Organization and the Minimata Institute that the bay is not polluted and that the heavy metals are under the dangerous level," he said.
In a previous interview, Dr. Speets called the survey a "very limited spot check" and "not a scientific way" to determine what was causing the illnesses in the village or whether the bay was polluted. He said that a bigger study was required.
This latest government report addressed that need.
In anticipation of the findings, Newmont undertook a public relations blitz to defend its position, professing its innocence in full page advertisements in Indonesian newspapers. The report recommended that the government ask Newmont to "remove all misleading advertisements in the print and electronic media concerning the quality of the environment around Buyat Bay."
Last week, Newmont told the Security and Exchange Commission that the various studies "all confirm that PTNMR has not polluted the Buyat Bay environment and therefore has not adversely affected the fish in the bay or the health of nearby residents."
Newmont also called a briefing last week for Indonesian journalists to challenge the latest findings. Afterward, an Indonesian employee of The New York Times found an envelope with the Newmont Minahasa logo tucked into her packet of briefing papers with five 50,000 rupiah notes, about $30.
The money, a sizable sum in a city where the average minimum monthly wage is $75, was returned the next day.
Asked what was the purpose of the money, Doug Hock, the director of public affairs for Newmont in Denver said, "We provided transportation reimbursement to national reporters as is customary in Indonesia." In a later e-mail message, he added, "We will refrain from providing it going forward in order to avoid any future misunderstandings."
Pollution in Buyat Bay, New York Times Editorial, Nov 16, 2004.
Indonesia's natural resources are among the most bounteous in the world. They are also among the most abused. Desperate for foreign investment and plagued by corruption and weak regulation, Indonesian governments over the years have virtually invited multinational corporations - and, for that matter, their own citizens - to clear-cut the country's incomparable rain forests, foul the air and pollute the water. Now more than 80 percent of the country's 19,700-square-mile reef system, the world's largest, is at risk.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, a former general, became Indonesia's first directly elected president last month partly on the promise of a cleaner, more open government, free of entanglements with special interests. He now has an opportunity to begin redeeming that pledge. Before him and his ministers lies a hotly disputed government report that says the sediment in Buyat Bay, the equatorial bay where an American corporation, Newmont Mining, has been depositing mine waste for several years, is polluted with high levels of arsenic and mercury.
The report further asserts that the pollutants have worked their way up the food chain and that fish in the bay are now laced with enough arsenic to make them unfit for consumption. The report, which Jane Perlez of The New York Times described last week, is the most comprehensive of several studies on Buyat Bay and is sure to figure in a $543 million lawsuit that local villagers have filed against the company. The villagers have complained of rashes, lumps, breathing difficulties and dizziness.
In response, Newmont says it received official clearance to flush wastes into the bay under a system known as "submarine tailing disposal." The company also insists that the underlying data does not support the disturbing conclusions that have appeared in the press, and that other studies have shown no contamination of the fish or the water.
There is one way to resolve this. Mr. Yudhoyono must swiftly release the full report. The report was compiled by a dozen or so experts, including Indonesian and American scientists, and it deserves to see the light of day. The president's next obligation, assuming that he finds no unexpected and disabling flaws in the study, is to stick by it and to seek appropriate remedies from the company.
That is easier said than done. Newmont is capable of mounting a stout defense. And like large multinationals elsewhere, its tentacles reach deep into Indonesia, which, like most third-world societies, is eager for foreign capital. As Rachmat Witoelar, the environment minister, noted plaintively, "I don't want to be part of throwing investors out of Indonesia." But he also added, and rightly so, that "you have to give protection to the victims."
Newmont to Pay $30M to End Pollution Suit. By Zakki Hakim, Associated Press / News.yahoo.com, Feb 16, 2006.
Newmont Mining Corp. agreed Thursday to pay Indonesia $30 million in an out-of-court settlement, ending one of two legal battles over allegations the company dumped tons of toxic waste into a bay, sickening villagers.
The deal closes a civil suit filed by the government, but has no impact on an ongoing criminal trial of the U.S. gold mining giant's top local executive, who is accused of knowingly dumping dangerous amounts of arsenic and other heavy metals into Buyat Bay on Sulawesi Island, 1,300 miles northeast of Jakarta.
Newmont's local subsidiary said it would pay $30 million over 10 years to fund environmental monitoring and community development around the gold mine in exchange for the government dropping the case.
"This is the best solution in solving this problem in the interests of the people of north Sulawesi," said Social Welfare Minister Aburizal Bakrie.
The Environment Ministry filed the suit last year and had been asking for $133.6 million in damages to compensate for the alleged pollution from arsenic-laced waste rock pumped onto the ocean floor. Arsenic and other heavy metals are used to separate gold from ore.
Robert Gallagher, Newmont's vice president of Indonesian operations, said the deal "reaffirmed our long term presence and investment in Indonesia and our commitment to the communities where we operate."
Newmont operates another massive gold and copper mine on Sumbawa in the far east of the country, and is planning more operations on the same island.
The company's legal troubles in Indonesia are being closely watched by foreign investors already anxious about the country's weak legal system, as well as by environmentalists eager to see if the government will punish a multinational mining company for the first time in recent history.
The criminal case against the company is being heard in Manado, the capital of north Sulawesi province. Richard Ness, the American president director of Newmont Minahasa Raya, the Denver-based company's Indonesian subsidiary, faces up to 10 years in prison if convicted. A verdict is expected later this year.
Prosecutors at the trial say Newmont violated environmental laws by dumping the waste, and allege villagers develop skin diseases and other illnesses as a result.
Newmont insists there was no pollution in the bay and the police investigation was flawed.
It says several studies have shown that the levels of mercury and arsenic in the bay are well below Indonesia's maximum allowable levels.
Newmont began operations in Sulawesi in 1996, and stopped mining two years ago after extracting all the gold it could. But it continued processing ore until Aug. 31, 2004, when the mine was permanently shut. (Associated Press / News.yahoo.com, Feb 16, 2006).
Indonesia: Political elite told not to fan protests. By Anissa S. Febrina, The Jakarta Post, March 23, 2006
The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) has warned the political elite against stirring up protests directed at foreign companies' mining operations, with jittery investors watching from the sidelines.
"There should be no provocative approach anymore against mining operations," M.S. Hidayat said Wednesday in reference to a rash of attacks and protests against foreign companies. "We should all try to create a conducive investment climate in order to further improve the economic condition."
Speaking at a Kadin press conference, Hidayat said the local communities' resentment of mining operations, which are mostly controlled by foreign investors, could be fueled by an inadequate contribution provided by the companies for local development, which is the argument of human rights groups.
If that were the case, he added, the discontent could be resolved through negotiation, such as by reviewing the existing mining contracts to ensure that local people receive more financial benefits from their operation.
Protests against American companies' interests have spiraled into violence in recent weeks, including against ExxonMobil Corp., Newmont Mining Corp. and Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc., with damage to property and the loss of at least five lives.
National Intelligence Agency head Syamsir Siregar indicated there were political moves behind the allegedly orchestrated protests, but he did not elaborate.
Kadin's deputy chairman for international cooperation John Prasetyo said many foreign executives also believed the unrest stemmed from conflicts among the country's political elite.
"We have to deal with the root of the problem -- is it lack of community development or a mistake during the history of the contract negotiations?" he added.
Hidayat said demanding closure of the company's operations here sent the negative message to foreign investors that Indonesia lacked legal certainty.
National Economic Recovery Committee head Sofjan Wanandi said the protests would deter the crucial investment needed to boost growth and create more jobs.
"We still lack competitiveness in the manufacturing sector. As we still rely on the mining and agricultural sector to attract foreign investment, such destructive protests should be avoided," he said.
According to data from business consultant PriceWaterhouse Coopers, the mining sector contributed US$1.6 billion in taxes, and employed more than 37,000 workers, in 2004.
During the same period, the companies allocated Rp 466 billion for community development and $66 million for reclamation projects.
The chairman of House Commission VII on mining, energy and the environment, Agusman Effendi, said public discontent should be resolved by accommodating the people's demands in the proposed mining law, now being deliberated by the House.
"All input, be it on required community development programs, local ownership of shares as well as divestment issues, could be regulated through the law."
Agusman said all recommendations would be considered before the bill was passed into law.
"I am sure all the politicians have their own representatives on the commission, so they should speak out in the discussions."
Indonesia Court Clears Mining Company. By Donald Greenlees. New York Times, April 24, 2007
An Indonesian court today acquitted the Newmont Mining Corporation and one of its senior executives of criminal charges of polluting a bay here with toxic waste from a now-defunct gold mine.
Ending a trial that lasted 21 months and pitted an emboldened national environmental lobby against the giant American mining company, a panel of judges found that there was no evidence to support criminal charges that Newmont polluted Buyat Bay in northern Sulawesi with toxins including arsenic and mercury.
The head of the Newmont unit controlling the mine, Richard Ness, an American citizen, faced a three-year jail term and a $55,000 fine if convicted on the charges. Prosecutors had also requested that the company be fined $110,000.
But the chief judge of the Manado District Court, Ridwan Damanik, said that the prosecutors presented a case that was so weak, even after a lengthy police investigation and the month-long detention of five Newmont executives, including an American and an Australian, that it should never have resulted in criminal proceedings.
"The police evidence doesn’t stand up," Judge Damanik told a packed courtroom.
Both environmentalists and investors around the world watched the case closely, and saw it as a vital test of the balance between economic development and environmental protection in Indonesia, a country with some of the richest mineral deposits in the world, including gold, copper, nickel and coal.
Reading from a 260-page judgment, Judge Damanik said in court that the prosecution failed to show that Newmont’s system of depositing mine waste at the bottom of the bay through a half-mile-long pipe had polluted the environment or caused health problems to local villagers.
Mr. Ness, 57, who was forbidden to leave Indonesia for a large part of the criminal proceedings, said today that he was pleased that the judges had acknowledged fundamental flaws in the legal procedures that allowed the case to get to court.
"We are all thrilled with the fact that after 2 ˝ years, we have been exonerated from the horrendous allegations that were brought before us originally," Mr. Ness said in an interview following the verdict.
He added: "We should never have even gotten this far; we shouldn’t have been in court."
But Purwanta Sudarmaji, the state prosecutor, said in an interview later that he intended to appeal the verdict. Indonesian law allows prosecutors to appeal acquittals within 14 days.
Environmental activists also expressed disappointment with the verdict. About 1,000 anti-Newmont protesters gathered today outside the court, which was cordoned off by a heavy police presence.
"Newmont was found not guilty because of legal procedure, but not on the substance," said Siti Maemunah, coordinator of the Mining Advocacy Network, an environmental group, in an interview from Jakarta.
Investors and some senior government officials feared that a guilty verdict against Newmont, one of the world’s biggest miners, would be a severe blow to the growth of Indonesia’s mineral industry at a time when the pace of investment is already at an historic low.
Environmentalists hoped the case would encourage officials to be less lenient in overseeing extractive industries like mining and logging, which can devastate large areas of countryside.
For Newmont, which is based in Denver, the case also became a focus of shareholder concern about the environmental and social standards adopted by the mining company in developing countries, where regulations are often less stringent than in the United States.
A group of institutional investors with links to religious organizations have proposed a resolution to set up independent monitoring of the environmental and social impact of Newmont’s operations.
In a first for an American mining company, Newmont’s board plans to endorse the adoption of the resolution at its annual meeting in Wilmington, Del., today.
The case against the company’s local unit, Newmont Minahasa Raya, centered on claims made in 2004 by a doctor and some local people that pollutants from the mine caused a variety of illnesses, including skin rashes and tumors.
They alleged that a baby had died as a result of exposure to the mine’s toxins.
A subsequent police investigation, which involved the testing of samples from Buyat Bay, found unsafe levels of heavy metals, and formed the basis of the criminal charges.
The prosecution alleged that the waste pumped into the bay polluted the environment, caused health damage to the population and was done without the proper waste disposal permits.
But the prosecution’s case was weakened when the doctor who brought the initial health claims retracted her statement in a letter sent to police.
Newmont was also able to point to several studies, including from the World Health Organization and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, that showed there was no danger to villagers’ health.
The August 2004 report from the Australian research organization said the absence of elevated metal concentrations in fish indicated that "metal availability in the waters of Buyat Bay and the surrounding marine waters is not excessive and would not be considered a polluted environment."
Although environmental activists and some officials in the Ministry of the Environment contested the reports showing pollutants to be well within safe levels, the judges sided with the defense’s argument that the reports showed that the mine was operating safely.
"There also is not enough evidence that people suffered from health problems," Mr. Damanik, the chief judge, said.
(Indonesia Court Clears Mining Company. By Donald Greenlees. New York Times, April 24, 2007)
Newmont Gold, with a mine near Carlin, Nevada, had 1991 sales of $573 million and profits of $126 million. Newmont Mining had 1991 sales of $623 million (Worldscope database record).
Cyanide heap-leach gold mining on unceded Western Shoshone land in Nevada (David Webster, Sep 24, 1992, Econet cdp:gen.nativenet "The Activist 8#10, October 1992").
In 1976, Kennecott sold Peabody Coal to a consortium which included Bechtel, Equitable Life Assurance, Fluor, Newmont Mining, and Williams Company; Hanson bought Peabody in 1990. See Peabody entry.
Yanacocha gold mine in Peru (Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p. 13); its operation is insured by the World Bank affiliate Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); it was MIGA's first insurance policy, in 1990) (Chatterjee, Pratap. Digging Everyone's Grave: World Bank's Mining Mayhem. Earth First! 16(1): 17, Nov. 1, 1995). U.S. OPIC provided political risk insurance to Newmont ((U.S. OPIC press release, June 13, 1995).
Newmont is operating in Russia (Wall Street Journal, Apr. 6, 1993, p. A1, A5).
Third World Debt
Sell the Gold, Free the Poor, By Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman. How Newmont is blocking a World bank/International Monetary Fund plan to cancel the debts of the poorest countries.
Newmont is involved in the Muruntau gold mine, one of the world's largest, in Uzbekistan (Wall Street Journal, Jan. 23, 1992, p. B1; Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p. 13). The mine is insured by the World Bank affiliate Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); it was MIGA's first insurance policy, in 1990) (Chatterjee, Pratap. Digging Everyone's Grave: World Bank's Mining Mayhem. Earth First! 16(1): 17, Nov. 1, 1995).
Newmont Mining shareholders order environmental reform. By Kevin Graman, Spokesman-Review, April 25, 2007Shareholders of Newmont Mining Corp., one of the world's largest gold producers, voted Tuesday to require the company to address community opposition to its operations in the United States and around the globe.
It is believed to be the first time a U.S. mining company has embraced such a social justice resolution, an action that shareholders said came as a result of heightened criticism of the company's environmental practices internationally.
Among Newmont Mining's many holdings is majority interest in the Dawn Mining Company, which until 1981 operated the Midnite Mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The open-pit uranium mine, now a Superfund site, is the source of radiation and heavy metal contamination of Blue Creek, which flows into the Spokane River arm of Lake Roosevelt.
Spokane tribal member Deb Abrahamson, director of the Shawl Society, an environmental group that was formed to address the legacy of uranium mining on the reservation, welcomed the news from the Newmont annual shareholders meeting.
"This offers great promise to help our community rebuild and address the issues that have been devastating to our people, our lands and our culture," Abrahamson said.
The shareholders' vote came on the same day an Indonesian court acquitted Denver-based Newmont and one of its executives in Indonesia of dumping arsenic and mercury into a bay of Sulawesi Island, where villagers have become ill as a result of eating contaminated fish.
The resolution on Newmont's community policies and practices was put forward by a coalition of faith-based investor groups led by Christian Brothers Investment Service Inc. It had the support of Newmont's board of directors and the leading proxy voting service, Institutional Shareholder Services, and was approved by nearly 92 percent of shareholders.
"We were concerned as shareholders about the company's reputation," said Julie Tanner, corporate advocacy coordinator for Christian Brothers Investment Service.
She said investors were seeing "a pattern of community opposition" in Indonesia, Ghana and Peru, as well as in Nevada, where Newmont operates several mines on the traditional lands of the Western Shoshone Nation.
She said analysts' reports on protests and legal actions as a result of the company's environmental and human rights record were beginning to affect stock prices.
"Also there is a moral obligation as faith-based shareholders," she added.
Tanner speculated that the company also saw adoption of the resolution as in the best interests of shareholders and to oppose it would not have been good corporate governance. A company spokesman did not return calls on Tuesday from a reporter seeking comment.
Newmont shareholders rejected another resolution by the New York City Pension Fund for the company to review the environmental and public health effects of its mining waste disposal operations in Buyat Bay on Sulawesi Island.
On Tuesday, nearly 1,000 protesters gathered outside an Indonesian courtroom as Richard Ness, who heads Newmont's subsidiary there, was acquitted of criminal charges after a 21-month trial, according to the Associated Press.
Newmont's chief executive, Wayne Murdy, told the AP that the case cost his company "tens of millions of dollars," including a $30 million settlement to end a separate civil suit over alleged pollution in the bay.
It was Newmont's unfavorable environmental and human rights reputation around the world that resulted in faith-based shareholders bringing both social justice resolutions to a vote.
Abrahamson said it was unlikely in the current U.S. environmental climate that the company would have supported the resolution were it not for the shareholders' insistence.
"It's been international pressure that has made this happen, while nationally they still have an open road to destruction," Abrahamson said.
(Newmont Mining shareholders order environmental reform. By Kevin Graman, Spokesman-Review, April 25, 2007)
THE HIGH COST OF GOLD: Denver-based mining giant Newmont gleams on Wall Street. But the company is tarnished by a troubled environmental record. By Michael Riley and Greg Griffin, Denver Post, December 12, 2004.Joel Lenz steps onto an observation deck near a desolate stretch of Interstate 80 and gazes down into a crater 600 feet deep and 1,800 feet wide - a stunning testament to Newmont Mining Corp.'s power to move mountains.
Far below, giant drills pierce holes in rock that will be crumbled by explosives. Massive shovels load earth onto dump trucks, which carry it to a mound where sprinklers will spray it with millions of gallons of cyanide and water.
From each 200-ton load of rock and ore, Denver-based Newmont, the world's largest gold producer, will extract an average of about $1,800 worth of gold - enough to make wedding bands for a dozen brides.
"I'm very proud of what we do here," said Lenz, manager of Newmont's Lone Tree Mine and a Nevada native who's raising a family in nearby Battle Mountain. "We work hard to make this a model operation."
Villagers near Newmont's foreign mines, environmental groups and others say the company's operations are anything but a model. Throughout the world, in many places where Newmont uses its heavy machinery and cyanide- extraction process to disgorge the gleaming metal that symbolizes love and wealth, problems follow.
From Nevada to Indonesia to Peru to Turkey, Newmont is battling accusations of misdeeds ranging from contaminating land and water to misusing its power with local governments and disrupting communities.
In lawsuits, internal company documents, regulatory filings and dozens of interviews, The Denver Post found significant environmental failures at Newmont's mines across the globe, including Lone Tree in Nevada.
Former employees complain that Newmont downplays or ignores environmental concerns raised within the company and in some cases retaliates against people who voice them.
In a decade-long campaign of acquisition and aggressive exploration, Newmont has climbed to the top of the gold industry. It employs 13,500 people around the world, including 300 in Colorado. It had revenues of $3.2 billion and produced more than 200 tons of gold last year. With gold prices high and demand soaring, publicly traded Newmont has positioned itself as a Wall Street darling and a popular way to invest in a booming market.
Newmont says it applies the same rigorous environmental standards under which it operates in the United States to its mining in other countries.
"We hear this accusation that we're exporting pollution because we can't do business in the U.S. I can tell you right now that's nonsense," said David Baker, Newmont's chief environmental scientist. "Our goal and objective is to do it right, not cut corners, and to take the levels of protection we use in the U.S. wherever we go in the world."
Critics, including former employees of the gold giant, say Newmont doesn't take environmental standards seriously enough anywhere it operates.
"They say that safety is their No. 1 concern and that the environment is their No. 2, but that isn't what they practice," said Sandra Ainsworth, an environmental compliance officer at Lone Tree who claims she was fired in April 2002 after reporting environmental problems to managers.
"There are companies out there that are willing to say the law is the law," she said. "Newmont is just powerful, and so they're more willing to say, 'We don't have to do this if we don't want to."'
Among The Post's findings:
In Nevada, Newmont violated water-quality standards at the Lone Tree mine for at least four years, releasing greater- than-permitted quantities of contaminants such as arsenic and boron, according to the mine's own monitoring reports. Ainsworth and another employee say they were fired after they took environmental problems at the mine to their bosses. Later, Newmont temporarily blocked a state investigation into the issue.
In Turkey, a former Newmont manager said the company's Ovacik mine near the Aegean coast had operated illegally and without the necessary environmental permits for at least two years before being shut down by Turkish courts in August. When he publicized the mine's problems, Newmont sued him for defamation. The mine's doctor resigned, claiming Newmont was falsifying accident reports and inflating the operation's safety record.
In Indonesia, Newmont may soon face criminal charges related to its Minahasa mine, where it is accused of polluting Buyat Bay and sickening local villagers. Newmont said in a 2001 environmental risk assessment that it could not rule out the possibility of metals from mine waste traveling up the food chain to humans. Newmont now says new research shows that can't happen.
Also in Indonesia, a confidential company review - one conducted in 2001 to take a hard look at environmental issues at its major mines - determined that equipment that was supposed to clean mercury from smokestack exhaust leaving the Minahasa processing plant often malfunctioned or was turned off. That allowed toxic mercury fumes to escape into the air, people familiar with the document say.
In Peru, that same review found that the mine's sediment controls were vastly inadequate and that the mine repeatedly poured sediment laced with heavy metals and other contaminants into streams. The mine's cyanide treatment facilities, including a treatment plant and holding ponds, were too small and sometimes released more cyanide than permitted into waterways, the internal review said. The urgency of the problem was highlighted by the company's insurer, which around the same time found that a sustained storm might lead to a significant cyanide spill at the mine, insiders say.
The 2001 review is described by some of those who read it as an early warning of environmental and safety concerns, some of which have since become public.
A year before Lone Tree employees raised public concerns about the dumping of contaminants into Nevada waterways, for example, Newmont's internal review highlighted those problems for senior company managers. But the problem wasn't fixed until after it became public.
While conceding that the 2001 review identified serious issues, Newmont chief executive Wayne Murdy also said the process showed Newmont's own commitment to improve its record after a major mercury spill in Peru in 2000. Murdy provided a memo to The Post from March 2001 that shows the review team was given wide leeway to examine problems at any company mine. The results were reported directly to the company's senior-most management.
Among other things, the review found that "upset events" dumped cyanide-laced water into Peruvian streams and released airborne mercury from a mine in Indonesia, Newmont's Baker said. Neither of those contaminants posed a serious risk to human health, he said, because the toxins were quickly diluted and the releases were over a short period.
Since the 2001 review, the company has spent $173 million on environmental improvements at Peru's Yanacocha mine, including improved sediment controls and expanded capacity for a cyanide-treatment plant, Baker said.
"The issues we faced with the growth of Yanacocha in 2000- 2001 do not exist today," he said. "We have managed the issues and put the appropriate systems in place."
Newmont's Murdy adds that the company brings strong benefits to the countries where it mines. These include jobs, tax revenue, money spent on materials and construction and charitable contributions. The company also has added roads, sewage systems and health clinics and paid for medical operations for poor children, he says.
Concerns discovered by a review in Peru were minimized to the board.
Inside the company, the 2001 internal review created significant concerns about environmental failures at Newmont operations throughout the world. Some high-level managers were convinced the company had failed to meet its promise to investors and communities to use the highest environmental standards wherever it operated.
This led to a controversy about how much information should be shared with Newmont's board of directors.
Moeen Qureshi, a former prime minister of Pakistan who served on Newmont's board until last year, said an account of the Peruvian portion of the internal review shared with the board in summer 2001 was too optimistic. He said that he and review team members asked for a second, more detailed presentation, which was given to the board two months later.
The Peruvian portion of the review was especially controversial because it confirmed some long-standing complaints from environmental groups and local communities.
Villagers had long complained about contaminated water and dying fish. Publicly, Newmont insisted that it was putting safety measures in place and that it was meeting its permit requirements.
As the mine quickly expanded in the late 1990s, controls designed to limit sediment flowing into nearby rivers did not work properly, leading to massive dumping of sediment into rivers and streams, the internal review found. Data uncovered by the review team found that fish had almost entirely disappeared from one creek leaving the mine in a period of less than three years.
In other cases, the 2001 review found problems that outside critics had missed. At Newmont's Minahasa mine in Indonesia, environmentalists accused the company of polluting a nearby bay. The internal review of Minahasa's operations pointed to other issues, including that the mine's processing plant was not always using its mercury-removing scrubbers.
Baker said the scrubbers weren't required when the company built the plant. Newmont added them voluntarily for an extra measure of safety, he said, and generally used the plant to process ore with lower mercury content.
Emissions standards were tightened later, and critics say that Newmont never re-evaluated its use of the pollution-control equipment. They also say the dangers of airborne mercury should have led the company to use the equipment in any case.
In Nevada, Newmont halted regulators' interviews with employees for two months.
In its annual reports and on its website, Newmont says that it takes U.S. environmental standards with it around the world.
Critics say that statement is more telling than the company intends.
In Nevada - the world's third-largest gold mining region behind South Africa and Australia - Newmont is the biggest gold miner. It's also the second-biggest polluter measured in toxic chemicals released into the environment.
Newmont dumped approximately 8.6 million pounds of what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency labels "persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals" throughout Nevada in 2002.
Those releases weren't necessarily illegal; the great majority were naturally occurring chemicals in rock and ore that are dug up and exposed as part of the mining process.
But the company's quarterly monitoring reports at its Nevada-based Lone Tree mine also show repeated violations of state and federal pollution standards in what former employees assert is a willingness to push the limits of environmental regulation there.Monitoring data provided to The Denver Post by an environmental watchdog group show that the mine regularly exceeded state standards for arsenic and other contaminants in water discharged into the Humboldt River between 1998 and 2002.
Newmont managers interrupted a whistle-blower probe into those and other problems at the mine two years ago, stopping regulators after one interview from talking to other employees. It took two months of legal wrangling between Newmont and the state attorney general before authorities could return.
The two Newmont employees who complained about the contamination, Ainsworth and Rebecca Sawyer, claimed in a later lawsuit that Newmont fired them after they repeatedly alerted supervisors to the mine's environmental problems.
Among their allegations, the women say the company ignored permitting standards, lied to regulators and failed to perform required environmental monitoring. Newmont officials deny those accusations and say the women were laid off for economic reasons.
Former Newmont executives say the Lone Tree case betrays a troubling weakness in the company's approach to environmental oversight.
Ainsworth said her experience was a hard lesson in management attitudes that, she contends, focus on bottom lines and bonuses rather than strict environmental compliance.
According to the women's lawsuit, Sawyer told her bosses in 2001 that the mine was dumping water high in a toxic form of ammonia into a nearby watershed, violating its permit.
Instead of fixing the problem, a manager ticked off a series of other unreported violations and told Sawyer that environmental "compliance is not a driving force for Newmont," the suit claims. Newmont says it takes compliance very seriously and has since fixed the ammonia problem.
Later that year, workers at Lone Tree discovered that storm water was reacting with rocks lining a drainage ditch to create sulfuric acid that was spreading in a wide plume onto public land. Rather than report it immediately as required by law, the lawsuit says that managers waited seven months, and that one initially told Ainsworth they would make "a risk-based decision" on whether to inform regulators.
"Now I realize they were evaluating the risk of being caught," Ainsworth said.
John Mudge, Newmont's environmental chief for North America, denied Ainsworth's claim. He said the company notified the state as soon as it discovered the problem and replaced the acid-generating rocks with limestone within several months.
Investigators said that many of the women's charges - including the reporting delay - were impossible to verify. Because of the two-month delay while Newmont blocked the probe, regulators had "lost the element of surprise, which is often times critical in investigations," the state's final report noted.
Newmont said it was only looking after the interest of its workers.
"Our primary interest was to let them see all they wanted. Give them access to all the records, but to protect our employees," Mudge said. "Their desire to interview employees named by former employees was a concern to us."
But regulators were able to verify the most serious allegation - that the mine was dumping contaminated water into northern Nevada's Humboldt River - because they had known about it for years.
The violations had shown up in quarterly monitoring reports, said Valerie King, a senior investigator for the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. She said the agency had been in talks with the mine for several years about a solution.
Newmont doesn't deny the violations and says it took steps to alleviate them, including agreeing to build additional water-treatment facilities. Mudge said the problem resulted from naturally occurring minerals in water from wells used to keep the mine pit dry, not as a byproduct of the gold-extraction process.
But the company did not solve the problem until after former employees filed a complaint with Nevada authorities.
If Newmont had been fined the maximum allowable under law for each day it violated water-quality standards, the company would have faced a $67 million penalty, according to an estimate by Great Basin Mine Watch, an environmental group.
Acting a year after the problem was publicly reported by Ainsworth and Sawyer, the state agency fined Newmont $5,000.
"We wanted to send a message that we were serious," King said. But a larger fine "was not consistent with the way we do business."
Operating sans permits
In Turkey, Newmont understated levels of cyanide in water leaving the mine.
Its gates closed and the massive equipment now idle, the quiet of the Ovacik mine in Turkey belies the political and legal storm that has swirled around the project for at least a decade.
Since 1994, the mine has been mired in a legal battle with local villagers over the use of cyanide to extract gold from the yellow-brown soil of the Aegean coast. It finally was shut down by the Turkish Supreme Court in August.
Newmont said it believes the closure is only temporary, and told investors in October that the mine may be up and running again by year's end.
But former employees said the recent court decision is just the most public of the mine's failures.
A former senior manager said the company operated the mine for two years aware it didn't have necessary permits and is misrepresenting the amount of cyanide released into its tailings dam. A former doctor at the mine said Newmont downplayed the mine's injury rate, risking the health and safety of miners.
The mine's former manager of government relations, Hasan Gökvardar, said his life has been threatened because of his willingness to publicize the mine's problems.
And the company's doctor, Eser Yalman, resigned in protest last year.
For Newmont's defenders - including economists, industry analysts and some lawyers - the Ovacik mine shows the difficulty of doing business in Turkey, a country still far less developed than its European neighbors. The company has had to cope with ambiguous or incomplete regulations and has been caught up in a political fight between the country's courts and parliament.
Though conceding that the company faced some ill will from villagers when Newmont acquired the mine through a merger in February 2002, Chris Anderson, Newmont's head of external relations, said the situation has dramatically improved.
Of the alleged death threats against Gökvardar, Newmont said that the company instructed mine employees angry about the closure not to retaliate against the mine's opponents.
"We worked very hard to build on the Turkish love of gold, and the fact that this was gold coming from this region, and we turned around local opinion," Anderson said.
Anderson also recalls Gökvardar, whose job at the mine was to obtain the necessary government permits: "He was the longest-standing employee. He worked for 11 years very hard to get the mine going."
But in early 2002, Gökvardar stood up at a meeting that included Anderson and other Newmont executives and explained that the mine's legal status was in disarray. Many of the mine's permits had either been canceled or had expired, he said. He claims he later told Ovacik's Turkish managers that the mine might have to close for as long as a year until the proper permits could be obtained - which Newmont denies.
The mine continued to extract gold, and by October of that year, Gökvardar said, his job was eliminated.
In a telephone interview, Gökvardar said Newmont has used its political connections and the eagerness of the country's government for foreign exchange to sidestep Turkish law.
In sworn testimony in Turkey last year, Gökvardar testified that the mine's tailings dam didn't meet Environment Ministry standards, that mining tunnels had bored beneath the mosque of a nearby village, and that many of the foreign workers didn't have visas.
He provided letters to The Post from the Turkish Ministries of Health and of Public Works showing that, in 2003, Newmont lacked at least three key permits. The same year, the mine processed more than 3 tons of gold worth more than $30 million.
Simon Booth, Newmont's manager of the Ovacik mine, said the health department permit wasn't needed to operate and said the others were canceled improperly by the local governor.
Although the mine has been shut down at least twice by the courts, it has been vigorously defended by Turkey's central government. In 2000, a ministerial decree cited a study by a group of government researchers showing the company has taken sufficient measures and that the mine was safe.
Gökvardar said the central government's support has been misplaced, especially since Newmont has lied to it about the seriousness of its impacts on the environment and workers.
Documents provided by Gökvardar show what he potrayed as a snapshot of a larger pattern of deception: A report Newmont submitted to regulators for July 15, 2002, shows cyanide levels for water leaving the detoxification plant and pouring into the mine's tailings dam well within the safety range set by Turkish regulations.
But an internal lab analysis performed for Newmont on that date shows levels 28 times higher than what the company reported - and nine times the government limit.
Newmont said those results, though accurate, are taken out of context. The spike in cyanide was the result of a malfunction during the change of a process circuit, Newmont's Booth said via e-mail, after which the toxin returned to safe levels.
The government launched an investigation into the spill after Gökvardar leaked the tests to the Turkish press, but no noncompliance notice was issued, Booth said.
Booth said Newmont fired the employee who gave the test results to Gökvardar for "failing to maintain Company values."
Yalman, the mine's doctor, said she also believed the company hid serious problems from government authorities.
When mining machinery pierced a worker's foot in April, 2003, Yalman said the man was ordered to report to the mine daily and was recorded as working while he sat in the infirmary, unable to walk.
When a cave-in trapped two employees at the mine in January 2002, the incident wasn't reported to regulators as required, and one of the miners was treated by an outside doctor, Yalman said.
Yalman wrote a memo to mine managers in protest. Newmont curtailed her authority two months later, Yalman said. She later resigned.
Booth, the Ovacik manager, denies Yalman's assertions, saying that she is using them in an effort to increase her severance payments from the company.
Newmont, in turn, is suing Gökvardar for nearly $70,000 - more than his annual salary when he worked at the mine - and police have charged him with stealing corporate documents. Both cases are pending.
"Newmont says 'we never do these things, we never hide anything.' But I saw it. They never told the truth to the government," Gökvardar said.
FIGHTING BACK: At mines in Peru and Indonesia, Denver-based gold company Newmont faced bitter, sustained opposition and discovered. By Michael Riley and Greg Griffin, Denver Post, Dec 13, 2004.
In early September, as thousands of Peruvian peasants blocked access to Newmont Mining Corp.'s richest gold mine high in the Andes, the company's Denver-based managers scrambled for a solution. They evacuated the families of managers and dropped workers into the mine by helicopter.
As the environmental protest wore on, Newmont's stock price plunged 7 percent in two weeks.
By November, company officials had made a nearly unprecedented decision: They shelved plans to expand the Yanacocha mine into a protected zone known as Cerro Quilish, abandoning indefinitely the more than $1 billion in gold that lies beneath the mountain.
To some eyes, the peasants' victory was a key moment in modern gold mining and a major setback for Newmont, a global giant that historically could move not just mountains of rock but foreign economies as well.
"It's a nightmare for Newmont. If they don't wake up after something like this, they are really going to find themselves in a difficult situation, not only with the (environmental) community but also with shareholders," said Lauren Compere, chief administrative officer of Boston Common Asset Management, a progressive shareholder group with holdings in Newmont.
Meanwhile, the company's nightmares are spreading.
In Indonesia, claims that Newmont has polluted a bay with millions of tons of mine waste have grown from a stubborn irritant into a corporate crisis. Five mine managers were jailed for a month in September and October, and the Indonesian government recently said it would file criminal charges against the company.
Villagers say they relinquished land for the Minahasa mine under pressure from the Indonesian military and police, and were paid too little for it.
In Peru, villagers complain of fish kills and foul-smelling water that animals won't drink. In the nearby city of Cajamarca, the Yanacocha mine has brought jobs and other economic benefits, but also prostitution, crime and social ills.
For many, Newmont's decision to halt expansion at Cerro Quilish may be the clearest example yet that what mining companies call "the social license to operate" is real.
While governments can give companies legal permission to mine, angry communities, environmental scandal and anxious markets can effectively combine to negate that right.
WhileIn Indonesia, the mine closedwas closing by the time the controversy erupted, but the crisis has dramatically changed the obstacles any new project will face. Earlier this month, the government said it will apply tougher permitting standards to the tailings disposal method at the heart of the controversy, a process in which mine waste is dumped on the sea floor.
Industry experts say the move may effectively ban the method for any new project in that country.
"When somebody asks me what our biggest challenge is, I look at the technical problems, I look at how you manage the environmental impacts, that's all science, that's relatively easy for us," Newmont chief executive Wayne Murdy told the Chamber of the Americas at a Denver luncheon in October.
"We don't always get it right on the social side, because that's hard. That's very hard," he said.
Newmont's chief recognized that his company now faces a global network of increasingly sophisticated and digitally linked opponents. What happens in company mines in Indonesia and Peru now affects local perceptions of Newmont mines as far away as Turkey and Ghana.
And while the requirements of a "good mine" 20 years ago were that it produced tax revenue and foreign exchange for cash-strapped governments, communities are now demanding that those benefits be more fairly disbursed.
In Indonesia, Newmont's adversaries are squatters who have been cut out of mine jobs given to other communities and who claim the bay they live on has been polluted.
"When people see wealth taken out of the ground as it is in the case of Newmont and Yanacocha, they want to see it coming back to the region," said Kent Lupberger, who oversees mining investments for the International Financial Corp., a lending arm of the World Bank, one of Newmont's partners in the Peruvian project.
While Newmont officials say they have been stunned by some recent actions of governments and local communities, in most cases the events of the past six months have been preceded by years of protests, court cases or studies that showed mounting environmental concerns and growing community unrest.
Safrudin Wangko, an Indonesian farmer, says he was expelled more than a decade ago from land Newmont wanted for its mine by Indonesian police, who threw him into a ravine when he resisted. He and dozens of other farmers have unsuccessfully sued the company, saying Newmont paid too little for the land.
Murdy said Newmont has always had a policy of paying a fair price for land and doesn't ally itself with security forces in foreign countries. "We have always been extremely careful about not getting the army involved in our operations," he said.
Wangko was among 80dozens of villagers who met in September with Chris Anderson, Newmont's head of external relations, in a meeting arranged by Global Response, a Boulder-based environmental group.
Anderson conceded that many of the residents appeared sick, but he blamed skin rashes and other maladies on bad sanitation rather than the nearly 5 millioncq tons of mine tailings the company poured into Buyat Bay over the life of the Minahasa mine.
"Mining companies hardly ever communicate well enough. We try the best we can," said Anderson, who has a Ph.D. in anthropology. "We probably rely on science too much. We assume people know how science works. But most people don't trust science."
Many also don't trust Newmont.
Newmont is "reaping its historical behavior. They are reaping (the results) of their lack of attention to these kinds of issues," said Compere of the Boston shareholder group.
Distrust in Peru
Newmont paid $16 million to clean up a mercury spill - and was challenged by the World Bank for its handling of the substance.
The September blowup in Peru was the culmination of almost a decade of sour relations between locals and a mine that devoured a hillside and now annually sprays millions of gallons of cyanide solution over heaps of gold-laden ore.
Peasants say fish have disappeared from streams that animals now avoid. They claim that some irrigation canals fed by rivers and streams leading from the mine have dried up.
Probably the most comprehensive study of the mine's impact on the area's water was done by Stratus Consulting Inc., a Boulder-based hydrology firm, at the request of the World Bank.
One stream leaving the mine, Quebrada Honda, showed consistently high levels of arsenic, lead and selenium, according to the Stratus study. Ann Maest, the study's co-author, said those levels would be prohibited under the Clean Water Act if the mine operated in the United States.
The contamination isn't at a level that would immediately kill people or make them sick, according to the Stratus report, in part because contaminants were diluted by surrounding streams. It is enough to kill fish, the report concluded, and investigators found that drinking the water over the long term could cause harm to humans.
Though water concerns were at the heart of the explosion of unrest in September, critics say they were also part of a long- running pattern of suspicion and distrust between locals and Newmont, which has been inflamed at intervals by company mistakes.
In June 2000, a Newmont contractor carrying containers of mercury spilled 330 poundscq of the chemical over 25 miles of roads and towns. The mercury was picked up by locals who thought it was valuable. Some of them boiled it on kitchen stoves looking for gold.
The spill affected 1,100 people and required a massive, multimillion-dollar cleanup effort by Newmont that included digging up streets and the floors of homes.
A later World Bank investigation found that Newmont had stopped using an Environmental Protection Agency-approved container for the mercury; that the mercury had been loaded incorrectly on an open truck; and that company officials initially misrepresented the size and seriousness of the spill, hampering emergency response efforts.
"We didn't meet our standards, and we would be the first to tell you that," said Doug Hock, Newmont's spokesman. The company has since spent $16 million on cleanup and health care for those affected.
Though ultimately Newmont's response to the spill may show the company's willingness to correct errors, the 11-year history of Yanacocha reveals a company by turns aggressive and conciliatory. The apparent inconsistencies are the result of differences among the mine's major partners, insiders say, but also a difference of opinion within Newmont itself over how much opponents should be accommodated.
Before the protests, the company had begun two dialogues with local opponents, but each has foundered. A main sticking point was whether the mine would allow - and pay for - independent monitoring of streams and rivers.
When the opponents were invited to discuss objections to the exploration of Cerro Quilish - a mountain that the nearby town of Cajamarca had declared off limits to mining - they arrived to find the doors of the meeting spot locked, said Martin Scurrah, regional director in Lima for Oxfam, an environmental and social activist group. Neither the company nor the Peruvian government showed up.
"Whether there was a fear the moment was not right to negotiate, or whether there was a hope that if they just froze them out, nothing would happen, I'm not sure. But there was an opportunity missed to resolve the issue before it got confrontational," Scurrah said.
Newmont has spent millions of dollars on community projects over several years to repair soured relations. It has set up small-loan programs, taught residents jewelry making and funded soccer teams.
It also paid $154 millioncq to the Peruvian government in taxes last year, but the central government's shortage of cash and bureaucratic inefficiencies mean that little of that money helps locals.
Even for the World Bank, which owns a 5 percent stake in the mine, Yanacocha has moved from a lauded example of Third World development to a model of what not to do.
The mine was among the first to open after Peru's liberalization in the early '90s. It was seen as a critical source of tax revenue and foreign exchange and led the way for the World Bank's renewed investment in gold mining.
But by 2002, the mine was brought up in a closed-door World Bank meeting as a negative example of community relations, meeting notes obtained by The Post show.
"They made mistakes and we made mistakes not bringing these things up sooner," said Lupberger, the World Bank administrator. "But clearly one of the things we've learned about mining projects is that their success is increasingly dependent on the support of the broad community."
A firestorm in Indonesia
The swell of negative opinion stuns Newmont officials, who say their mine-waste disposal method can't harm humans.
Perhaps nowhere does Newmont face more opposition than in Indonesia, where the government is preparing to file a criminal lawsuit against the company.
Newmont faces potentially hefty government penalties, possible jail terms for its employees and an uncertain future for its massive Batu Hijau gold and copper mine.
The problems stem from Newmont's now-closed Minahasa mine, located on the Buyat Bay in a remote region of north Sulawesi island.
The firestorm erupted last summer after residents of a small fishing village on the bay filed a $543 million lawsuit against Newmont.
Newmont used a controversial method called submarine tailings disposal to get rid of its mine waste, pumping nearly 5 million tons of the tailings to the ocean floor about a half- mile from shore during the mine's eight-year life.
Local fishermen and environmental groups say the waste polluted the bay, causing rashes, headaches and tumors - allegations that Newmont staunchly denies.
Recent studies by the World Health Organization and the Indonesian Environmental Ministry confirmed Newmont's assertion that metals were not migrating to the water or fish. But arsenic and mercury levels in the bay's sediments, also confirmed in the studies, have alarmed Indonesian officials.
In Denver, Newmont's executives are dumbfounded by the turn of events in Indonesia.
"As the facts have come out in that case, they're so overwhelming that it just makes the claims look ludicrous," CEO Murdy said. "Not only did we meet the standards, but we far exceeded the standards."
Murdy maintains that the tailings disposal system performed well and that the company is being persecuted by environmentalists determined to drum Newmont out of Indonesia.
But company documents show that the system hasn't always worked as Newmont predicted. The pipe that delivered the tailings to the sea floor burst in 1998, Newmont said. And in a study earlier this year, Newmont found that tailings had settled in an area of the bay 100 feet higher than anticipated.
Meanwhile, regulations in the U.S. and Canada make the kind of system Newmont used to dispose of waste in Buyat Bay very difficult, if not impossible, to deploy in North America.
The Indonesian government approved Newmont's plan for Minahasa in 1994. Newmont said the disposal system was the best solution where rainfall and seismic activity were high. At Buyat Bay, it maintains that because the water and fish in the bay aren't contaminated, the system has worked.
No countries have enforceable standards on metal contaminants in marine sediments, said Newmont environmental chief David Baker. It's what gets into the water and fish that matters, he said.
But environmental regulators in most developed nations have identified threshold levels at which contaminant levels in sediments are considered dangerous to marine life. Newmont's own research found arsenic levels in the tailings in Buyat Bay at levels 15 times the U.S. thresholds.
Indonesian environmental groups, and now the government, say that these harmful metals are getting into the food chain through worms and other deep-sea bottom-dwellers known as benthos.
The study by the Indonesian Environmental Ministry says that mercury levels in benthos in Buyat Bay are higher than in the surrounding sediments, indicating that the metal is accumulating in the organisms.
Newmont officials reject the notion that metals can migrate from the tailings to marine life.
But a company study in 2001 determined the risk of arsenic and mercury passing from the tailings to humans from benthos "could not be eliminated."
Baker said the company has since done new research that determined there is no danger of the metals getting into the human food chain.
Newmont isn't alone in characterizing scientific research to its own advantage.
Environmental groups first attacked the company's Buyat Bay operation for allegedly causing Minamata disease, a central nervous system illness related to mercury poisoning. The World Health Organization study discredited those claims.
Nonetheless, the Environmental Ministry's study determined that consuming fish from Buyat Bay is risky for local villagers.
That study did not find higher arsenic levels in fish and water than the World Health Organization did. Instead, it based its conclusion on an estimate of average daily fish consumption among villagers of nearly 1 pound.
That's roughly eight times the amount of fish the average Indonesian eats, according to United Nations figures, and more than double the average per- capita consumption in fish-loving Japan.
Still, the Environmental Ministry study, which remains unpublished, is likely to cause big problems for Newmont as it fends off rising legal challenges.
Among its findings, the study concludes that Newmont operated the underwater waste-discharge system without a proper permit between 1996 and 2000. Newmont officials say they obtained permission in 1994 but had to reapply in 2000 when the government added new permitting requirements.
The government study determined that Newmont's detoxification process for the tailings sometimes failed to lower contaminant levels. Even though this showed up in Newmont's own monitoring data, the report alleges, Newmont did nothing to fix the problem.
Newmont maintains that there has been no contamination of water or fish in Buyat Bay. Anderson, Newmont's external relations chief, said some of the company's problems in Indonesia are a result of poor community relations.
Though Newmont has worked closely with a handful of villages around the bay area and maintained the support of their leaders, it largely ignored the squatters' village where the problems have arisen.
Had Newmont been able to supply jobs and infrastructure in the village, the issue may never have gotten to this point, Anderson said.
Top media conglomerate, with television and cable stations (Hughes Electronic Corp-DIRECTV), 175 newspapers and magazines (UK Times, New York Post), book publishers (including HarperCollins), film (20th Century Fox), sports teams and stadiums (New York Rangers and Knicks, Staples Center). See Columbia Journalism Reviews's Who Owns What.
NICHIMEN AMERICA INC.
New York, telephone 212-719-1000
12310 NE 8th, Bellevue, WA telephone 206-453-1100
According to Yoichi Kuroda of Japan' Tropical Forest Action, Nichimen is the largest importer of timber from Sarawak, Malaysia (Subtext: the International News Biweekly (Seattle), v.1, n.7, Aug. 9-22, 1990, p. 3). In 1988, 1989, and 1990, Nichimen imported 930,295, 1,025,004, and 1,038,858 cubic meters of tropical wood, respectively (JATAN, Nov. 1991).
Nichimen's Zaibatsu-associated companies include Hoya and Sharp (World Rainforest Report, v.6 n.2, 1990).
Controlled by the Rothschilds; New Caledonia mines (WOTE).
JACK NICKLAUS DESIGN CO.
Charges $1 million to design a golf course; has built 21 in Japan, 14 in Thailand, 10 in the Philippines. There are 24,000 golf courses in the world (more than half in the U.S.); a group working to educate on the impacts of golf courses is the Global Network for Anti-Gulf Course Action (GNAGA), 1047 Naka, Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan 296-01 (Earth Osland Journal, Spring 1993, p. 17).
NICOLET MINERALS COMPANY see Crandon Mining
One Bowerman Dr., Beaveton OR 97005
European headquarters: Amsterdam.
Established in 1968. In the early 1990s founder Phil Knight still owned 35 percent of Nike's stock (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993), and by the mid-1990s Knight's stock is worth more than $4.5 billion (Herbert, June 12, 1996). In 1992, Nike had 30 percent of U.S. athletic shoe market and 21 percent of the world market; Nike's foreign (mostly Europe) sales accounted for 29 percent of its total 1991 sales of $3 billion (Hoover's 1993). In 1995, Nike's sales were $4.8 billion and its profits were $400 million (Business Week, July 8, 1996, p. 66). Nike spends over $100 million per year on advertising (Hoover's 1993); Michael Jordan was paid $20 million, while Andre Agassi has a $100 million, ten-year contract with Nike (Herbert, June 12, 1996).
Sweatshops: Almost all its shoes, and half its apparel, is produced overseas (Hoover's 1993); Nike has had contractors in China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand; in the mid-1990s, Nike was manufacturing a third of its shoes in Indonesia, where workers, after four years of sometimes violent struggle, are paid $2.20 per day; Nike is also moving into Vietnam, where wages are $30 per month (Herbert, June 12, 1996). After Kathie Lee Gifford announced her campaign against sweatshops (some of which she owns), Nike released its minimum wage list: $56 per moth in Indonesia (25 cents per hour for 55 hours per week), but said the average worker gets $117 per month at 53 cents per hour (Baum, June 7, 1996). In Pakistan, Nike and Adidas pay elementary school age children 6 cents per hour to sew soccer balls. Pakistan produces half the world's soccer balls, with Nike making less than one percent of the 35 million balls per year; Nike's Pakistan subcontractor is Saga Sports (Manning, citing Schanberg, June 1996).
Toxic jerseys: "Three major department store chains in Germany are pulling Nike jerseys of the Borussia Dortmund soccer team off their shelves after reports they are laced with a toxic chemical used in anti-barnacle paint on ships. Studies show the chemical tributyltin can cause mutations in marine snails. But Nike may have used the chemical "to kill bacteria and quell the stench of excessive sweating." (Greenwire, citing AP, Jan. 6, 2000).
2003 Kasky lawsuit: "The [Kasky] suit was originally provoked by a Nike PR campaign that discussed the labor conditions in its overseas manufacturing facilities. However, it eventually evolved into a dispute over whether the US Constitution's First Amendment protections extend to PR efforts. The settlement follows a June decision by the US Supreme Court not to rule on the speech issue. Kasky's lawyers argued among other points that the words of the company's spokespeople should be considered "commercial speech," like advertising, and are therefore not protected by free-speech rights. Nike's legal team asked the court to dismiss the suit on the grounds that the PR campaign enjoyed free-speech protection under the First Amendment. The high court declined to rule on the suit, allowing the case to proceed through the California trial courts. The case was born out of an attempt by Nike to defend itself against accusations that its footwear is manufactured in sweatshops in Asia. The company began a PR campaign to quash those accusations in 1998. Kasky disputed the assertions made in that campaign, and launched his suit on those grounds. The settlement sees Nike admit no liability, but agree to spend $1.5 million on workplace-related issues over the next three years above what it usually spends on such initiatives. The money will go to the Washington, DC-based Fair Labor Association, a workers' rights group. (Matthew Creamer, Nike talks to PRWeek after Kasky settlement, PR Week, Sept 12, 2003).
"Why did Marc Kasky settle his case against Nike for a $1.5 million payment to the Fair Labor Association, a group controlled by Nike and other major shoe manufacturers?... Corporations are given six of the seats on the FLA board, and the FLA charter states that all major decisions require a super-majority of the corporations on the board to be approved... The New York Times reported earlier this month that "other terms of the settlement were not disclosed, and lawyers on both sides declined to say whether Nike had paid Mr. Kasky's legal fees or made other payments."... Discovery in the Kasky case had the potential to open the Nike files to public scrutiny, to document the mistreatment of workers throughout the world, and the flow of money from Nike to public interest groups... And Kasky and his lawyers settle this potential historic case for a $1.5 million donation to a group controlled by the shoe and apparel industry. And now they won't talk about it." (Nike Gets a Pass, by Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman, Focus on the Corporation, Sept 22, 2003).
Websites on the Nike campaign:
Corporate Watch Nike campaign http://www.corpwatch.org/nike/
Just Do It! (Boycott Nike) http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/5232/
Boycott Nike Homepage from Vietnam Labor Watch http://www.saigon.com/~nike/
Baum, Bob. Nike Target of Labor Protests. Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, June 7, 1996, p. C1, C5.
Herbert, Bob. Knight Builds Wealth exploiting Cheap Labor. New York Times; Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, June 12, 1996, p. 11A.
Manning, Jeff. Child Labor Stalks Nike. Oregonian, June 7, 1996, p. C1, C6.
Schanberg, Sydney. Six Cents An Hour. Life Magazine, June 1996.
3-2-3 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
Associated through a zaibatsu with Mitsubishi (World Rainforest Report, v.6 n.2, 1990).
NIPPON OIL EXPLORATION
3-12, Nishi Shinbashi 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan
telephone (03) 3502-1111
Petroleum refining, service stations, highway construction, and plastic materials and resins (Worldscope 1992).
Nippon Oil is involved in oil drilling in Burma (Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1992 and June 1993). Premier Oil sold half of its Tennasserin coast concession in Burma to Texaco, and another 20 percent to Nippon ( Burma Issues, Nov. 1993, p.6).
Formed from the merger of Jujo/Sanyo-Kokusaku Paper.
Mitsui and Nippon Paper agreed to a 30,000 hectare eucalyptus plantation joint venture in western Autralia and Victoria; wood chips would be exported to Japan (Paper Asia, Jan. 1996, p. 6).
March 2000 announcement of merger:
"Nippon Paper Industries Co. and Daishowa Paper Manufacturing Co. plan to combine operations, creating Japan's biggest paper manufacturer. Nippon Paper is Japan's second-largest paper maker, while Daishowa Paper is fourth-largest. The combined company is expected to capture 32.2 percent of the domestic paper market. The current leader is Oji Paper Co. with about 23.7 percent. The merger agreement, announced Monday and expected to be completed in April 2001, will save the companies an estimated $467 million annually and allow them to take greater advantage of Japan's rebounding paper market, analysts said. "Our tie-up resulted from the need to better address the changes in paper demand caused by new information and telecommunications technologies as well as to cope with increasing international competition," said Masao Kobayashi, president of Nippon Paper, at a news conference. The deal is subject to approval by each company's shareholders, and analysts said the combination may run into difficulty if Daio Paper Corp., Daishowa's largest shareholder, opposes the move. Investors welcomed the news Monday. Nippon Paper's shares rose 14.83 percent, while Daishowa Paper's shares gained 9.36 percent. (Associated Press, March 27, 2000).
17-1, Ginza 6-chrome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-23 Japan
Nissan North America, 990 W. 190th St, Torrance CA 90502
Auto manufacturing in Mexico ("Mexico welcomes carmakers," Los Angeles Times/Seattle Times Apr 22 1992). Associated through a zaibatsu with Marubeni (World Rainforest Report v.6 n.2 (1990).
NISSHO CORPORATION (NISSHO IWAI)
9-3, Honjo-Nishi 3-chome, Kita-ku, Osaka 531, Japan telephone (06) 372-2331
5-8, Imabashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541, Japan telephone (06) 209-2111
1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036 telephone 212-704-6500 212-739-2000
Nissho Corporation runs grocery stores (40 percent of 1992 revenues), pharmaceuticals (6 percent), surgical and medical equipment (37 percent), glass (15 percent), and other, including real estate, 2 percent. Some 85 percent of its sales were in Japan (Worldscope record 1992).
Nissho Iwai is involved in metals (46 of 1992 revenues), machinery (18 percent), energy (13 percent), consumer products (13 percent), and food (7 percent), also 85 percent within Japan (Worldscope record 1992). Nissho Iwai has tried (and so far failed to enter satellite communications with Marubeni and Sumitomo (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 320).
Nissho Iwai is involved in the tropical timber trade; in 1988, 1989, and 1990, it imported 1.4, 1.6, and 1.3 million cubic meters of tropical wood (JATAN, Nov 1991); especially from Sarawak, Malaysia (Rainforest Action Movement, 1988).
Nissho Iwai has a ten-year, $50 million contract to export ilmenite from Vietnam's northern province of Nghe Tinh to Japan. Quantities were expected to be 20,000 tons the first two years and 50,000 tons annually after that. Japan also imports ilmenite from Malaysia and Australia. Imports from Malaysia were banned by Japan in 1990 when they were found to be radioactive (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 103; and Engineering & Mining Journal, Mar. 1992, p. 37).
United Tractors, a subsidiary of Astra and Nissho Iwai, controls the Berau coal mine on the Latek River 600 km north of Samarinda, East Kalimantan (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 150).
NIUGINI MINING LTD.
Papua New Guinea
Acquired the San Cristobal gold and silver heap leach mine in Chile; has a joint venture in Papua New Guinea with CRA at the Mt. Kare gold mine (Minerals Industry International, Jan. 1991, p. 3).
Gold mine venture on Lihir Island, PNG, with Kennecott (Mining Magazine, Sept. 1991, p. 176).
NKK see Kaltim Prima.
NLS Sdn Bhd
One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).
NOBEL INDUSTRIES SWEDEN
Gustav Adolfs Torg 18, S-103 27 Stockholm, Sweden, telephone 46-8-613-25-00
595 Skippack Pike, Suite 300, Blue Bell PA 19422, telephone 215-641-9330
Nobel Foundation, Box 52322, S-10245 Stockholm, Sweden
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite in the 1860s. Like other pioneers in explosives (such as the Du Ponts), such work cost many lives - including some of the Nobel family members. Nobel's brothers developed the Russian oil industry in the 1870s. In the 1880s, Nobel helped create a dynamite trust for France, Italy, Switzerland, and South Africa, while DuPont controlled the explosives industry in the U.S. In 1894, Nobel bought the Bofors steel and munitions factory in Sweden. In 1895 he died and left his fortune to be distributed as annual prizes to people who "shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."
Nobel's Russian/Caspian oil operations are described in Daniel Yergin's book The Prize.
The London-based Nobel industries (Nobel Trust) was one of the companies that formed Imperial Chemical Industries in the 1920s, in response to the creation of the German chemical trust I.G. Farben. In the late 1970 and early 1980s, industrialist Eric Penser gained control, and renamed it Nobel Industries. In the 1980s, Nobel was accused of illegal weapons exports to the Iraq and Iran, and bribery in India. (Swedish law makes it illegal to send weapons to a country engaged in an armed conflict). In 1991, Penser collapsed financially, and his holdings, including Nobel Industries, were taken over by Sweden. The Nobel Foundation asked the government to change the name, since it was reflecting poorly on the Foundation.
Nobel Industries now consists of some 300 companies in 30 countries, including Berol Nobel (chemistry), Casco Nobel (adhesives and paint), Eka Nobel (paper chemicals), Nobel Biotech, Nobel Chemicals (drugs), and Spectra-Physics (the California-based leader in laser systems) (above history based on The Global Marketplace, 1987, p. 427-433; and Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 354-355).
Burma Allied Ordnance, a joint venture between Nobel and Shengli Holding (Singapore), is one of the major suppliers of weapons to SLORC, the military regime conrolling Burma (Burma Issues, Oct. 1993, p. 3).
Fant, Kenne. Alfred Nobel: A Biography (Arcade, 1993).
Hellberg, Thomas. Alfred Nobel.
Meyer, E. P. Dynamite and Peace: the Story of Alfred Nobel.
PBS program The Nobel: Visions of Our Century celebrates 100 years of Nobel Peace Prize winners.
de Rudder, Orlando. Alfred Nobel (1833-1896).
Tolf, Robert W. The Russian Rockefellers : The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry.
Williams, Trevor Illtyd. Alfred Nobel; Pioneer of High Explosives.
Nomura Shoken Kabushiki Kaishi, 1-9-1, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103, Japan
telephone 011-81-3211-1811 fax 011-81-3-3278-0420
Nomura Securities International, Continental Center, 180 Maiden Lane, New York NY 10038
telephone 212-208-9300 fax 212-509-8907
Began in 19th century; expanded worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s; now the world's largest securities company, and a leading Eurobond underwriter. In 1991, investigated for covering stock losses and stock manipulation; the Chairman and President left the company. Has 146 offices in Japan (80 percent of total 1990 sales of 1,201 billion yen), and 61 offices in 23 other countries (20 percent of 1990 sales). Has had U.S. operations since 1927; U.S. affiliates now include Babcock & Brown, Eastdil Realty, Tudor/Nomura Global trading Partners, and the Wasserstein Perella Group (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 249).
See Albert J. Alletzhauser's The House of Nomura: the Inside Story of the Legendary Japanese Financial Dynasty (Arcade, New York, 1990).
Toronto Dominion Bank Tower, Suite 4414, PO Box 7, Toronto, ONT M5K 1A1
St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
U.S. offices in Spokane Washington, Denver Colorado, and Reno Nevada
Established in 1922 as Noranda Mines Ltd. to develop copper claims in Quebec and Ontario. Majority owners are Brascade Resources (Brascan) and Edper Investments, both controlled by the Bronfmans of Montreal. Now divided into Noranda Minerals (nickel, copper, lead, silver, and gold, processed metals and related chemicals, with U.S. subsidiary Crown Butte Resources), Noranda Forest (pulp, paper, panel board), Noranda Manufacturing (wire and aluminum products), and Noranda Energy (natural gas and oil). Macmillan Bloedel was a Noranda subsidiary from 1981 to 1993.
Noranda's Horne smelter in Rouyn-Noranda, built in 1927, uses concentrates from around the world, including Chile. In 1987, Canada and Quebec announced they would each make $40 million in low-interest loans linked to copper prices to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions (see William Glenn's "Noranda Inc: Ravaging the Land", Multinational Monitor, May 1990, p. 21-23).
Noranda bought the nickel giant Falconbridge in 1989; has Golden Giant mine at Marathon, Ontario (see Glenn, 1990).
Northwood Forest Industries Ltd. and Northwood Panelboard Co. are joint ventures between Noranda Forest and Mead (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 374).
Noranda Forests Canada was to be a half owner of planned $1 billion Wesley Vale Project pulp mill in Tasmania, Australia, with North Broken Hill Ltd. (Glenn, 1990; and World Rainforest Report, Vol. 5, No. 1, March-May 1989).
The Canadian metals and mining group Noranda Inc. is reactivating plans to build a US$2.7 billion aluminium smelter in southern Chile. The company first took an interest in Proyecto Alumysa Ltda in 1995 but in the following year its Australian partner Comalco, a Rio Tinto subsidiary, withdrew from the project, preferring to focus on its Australian projects and Noranda decided not to proceed on its own (Mining Journal, March 14, 1997, p.206). This Wednesday, however, the company revealed that it has spent a year preparing an environmental impact study and that this has now been filed with the Chilean Government. The project involves the construction of a 440,000 t/y capacity plant and three hydro-electric dams with a combined generating capacity of 1,750 MW. The smelter would require 750 MW. A spokesman for Noranda, Dale Coffin, says that the environmental impact study is a necessary step before securing a partnership or bank financing, and approval of the study would help attract investors. Mr Coffin said that Noranda is actively seeking partners, either on the energy side or on the aluminium production side, although the company has set no specific deadlines, either for the partnership decision or the financing for the industrial complex. When the Alumysa project was first put forward in the 1990s it met strong opposition from local environmental groups. The site for the complex, in the remote southern province of Aysen, is an area of rivers, lakes and forests, and opponents of the project claim that it will damage this pristine environment by generating toxic waste. It is expected that the government will take six to nine months to approve the project or demand changes to the proposals in the environmental impact study. (Mining Journal http://www.infomine.com/news/mining.journal/040.htm accessed Dec 12, 2001).
Proyecto Alumysa Ltda., an affiliate of Noranda Inc. of Toronto, Canada, has announced that it has filed an Environmental Impact Study (EIS) with the Environmental National Commission of Region XI, in Southern Chile, for the construction of an aluminum reduction plant and its related hydroelectric facilities. The plant will have a capacity of approximately 440,000 tonnes of aluminum per year. "We hold excellent water and land assets in southern Chile, assets which we believe could support a world-class aluminum plant," said Steve J. Heddle, Noranda's President of Primary Aluminum Products. "The filing of the EIS is only one of several requirements that must be satisfied before a final go-ahead can be given to the project." The Project's EIS must first obtain approval from the Chilean environmental authorities. Then, the participation of one or more investment partners must be secured and, finally, Noranda's Board of Directors will need to approve a revised feasibility study that incorporates the latest economic and operational data. It is expected to take between six and nine months for the Chilean environmental agency to make a decision on the EIS. (Mining Engineering International, Sept.11, 2001).
Environmental groups in Chile have entered a legal complaint against the recommencement of development of Noranda's $2.7 billion Alumysa aluminium smelter in the south of the country. The company revived its plans for the plant earlier this year having spent a year preparing an environmental impact study (Mining Journal, Aug 31, 2001, p.158). The environmental groups allege that the EIS mentions neither the impact that Alumysa would have on the environment, nor measures intended to mitigate that impact. Robert Biehl, project manager for Alumysa, says that the EIS meets Chilean and international standards, as well as those outlined by the World Bank (Mining Environmental Management).
Noranda's own version of the Alumysa project is explained at http://www.noranda.com/. In August 2003, Noranda announced that it was temporarily suspending work on the Alumsya project
Further information on Noranda
See also the entry for Crown Butte Resources, which is Noranda Minerals' U.S. subsidiary.
Oil was discovered on Lubicon Cree land on Alberta, Canada, in 1979; betwen 1979 and 1983, more than 400 oil and gas wells were drilled within 15 miles of the traditional Lubicon community of Little Buffalo. The drilling generates more than $500 million in annual revenues for oil companies and the Alberta government. Between 1980 and 1995, $8 billion was generated by Unocal, Norcen, Nova, and Husky; Alberta receives 20 percent. Lubicon hunting has suffered; welfare has risen from 10 to 95 percent; birth defects, tuberculosis, alcoholism, and respiratory and skin diseases have appeared (Western Canada Wilderness Committee's Lubicon Campaign Report, Fall 1995). See also enttry for Unocal.
Russian state nickel combine that also produces the nation's
platinum, palladium and rhodium. Recently began working with South Africa, which, together with Russia, produces mre than 90 percent of the world's platinum, palladium and rhodium, and many other minerals (see "Russians, South Africans Join Forces on Mining," by Neil Behrmann, Wall Street Journal, June 17, 1992, p. C1).
See "Forest Destruction and Platinum Trade: The Case of Norilsky Nickel," in Taiga-News: Newsletter on Boreal Forests, No. 10, July 1994.
NORINCO (China North Industries)
Extension of the Chinese military; its SKS AK-47 assault-style rifles have been redesigned as "sporting" rifles for legal import into the United States, at a cost of about $125. China supplied 30 percent of all guns and 54 percent of all rifles shipped to the U.S. in 1993; most were MAK-90 or other military-style rifles (Tibet Monitor: a Monthly Publication of the Tibetan Rights Campaign, Seattle, Apr. 1994, p. 5, citing Reuters, Washington Post, and Dateline NBC).
NORTH PACIFIC GROUP (NOR PAC)
PO Box 3915, Portland, OR 97208
telehone 800 547-8440 or 503 231-1166
Subsidiaries include Cascade Imperial Mills, Castle Pacific, Century Flooring, Norte Pacific de Chile, Contact International, Cowley Pacific, Gulf Pacific Trading, North Pacific de Mexico, Pacific Vermillion, Forest Products Warehousing, Landmark, Saxonville USA, Schultz, Snyder, & Steele, North Pacific Pole, North Pacific International, North Pacific Lumber.
"North Pacific Lumber and our subsidiaries are experts in purchasing, sales, marketing, production, distribution, transportation and logistics for a wide variety of products from all over the world. Be it Hardwood Lumber, Softwood Lumber, Boards, Structural Panels, Engineered Panels, Engineered Lumber, Steel, Grains, Fertilizers, Poles or Logs... NOR PAC is an employee owned corporation, incorporated in 1948. We are the second largest privately held company headquartered in Oregon with over $1 billion in sales and over 750 employees. Forbe's Magazine ranked us in the top 200 privately owned companies in the US in 1998 National Home Center News June 21, 1999 "Distributors Scoreboard" issue listed us as the 6th largest Lumber and Building Material Wholesale Distributor." (http://www.north-pacific.com/)
NORSASK FOREST PRODUCTS
Native Cree peoples were arrested at Canoe Lake, Saskatchewan, in a July 1992 blockade against clearcutting (Cultural Survival Quarterly, Fall 1992, p. 11).
Bygdoy alle 2, N-0240, Oslo 2 Norway
Leading producer of fertilizer. Also produces magnesium, aluminum, hydroelectricity, petrochemicals, oil and gas. Half-owned by Norway. Fish farming subsidiary Mowi. North Sea oil development. Its fertilizer companies include NSM (Holland), Supra (Sweden), Ruhr Stickstoff (Germany), Cofaz (France), Green Bay Florida, and ammonia plants in Trinidad and Tobago. Norsk Hydro petrochemicals operations include British PVC production (Vinatex and BIP Vinyls). Aluminum operations include Hydro Aluminum (merged with ASV of Norway). Other subsidiaries and affiliates of Norsk Hydro include Dyno Industrier, Freia Marabou, Geonor, Kirk Precision, Phamala, Pronova, and Terra Mining (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 360-361).
Norsk Hydro has oil exploration, development, refining, and marketing offices in Stabekk, Bergen, Harstad, Kristiansund, and Lysaker Norway; Kopenhagen Denmark, Stockholm Sweden, and Twickenham Middlesex England (Wshole World Oil Directory 1991, p. 149).
See also Alpart (Jamaican bauxite joint venture).
NORTH AMERICAN WATER AND POWER ALLIANCE (NAWAPA)
Plan to build a $1 billion series of dams, reserviors, and canals to divert Alaskan and Canadian water to the southwestern U.S. Would involve the Susitna, Copper, Tanana, and Upper Yukon rivers and impoundment at Flathead Lake, Montana and Lake Mead, Arizona. See the article by Loretta Griffin in Earth Island Journal (Fall 1991), and Northwest Conservation: News and Priorities (Fall 1992, p. 17).
Copper mining on Mindanao in the Phillipines (Mining Magazine, Mar. 1992, p. 136).
Acquired Grumman in April 1994.
Westinghouse Northrup Grumman merger (Business Week, Jan. 22, 1996, p. 40).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on Northrup in 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
NORTHSTAR ENERGY CORPORATION
Northstar Energy's subsidiary PowerLink is involved in constructing and operating power projects in Canada, the U.S., and Europe.
Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold's P.T. Freeport Indonesia Company, Duke Energy (a subsidiary of Duke Power, PowerLink, and an Indonesian investor have announced a plan for the creation of a $200 million joint electricity venture for the Irian Jaya mine (Freeport-McMoRan news release, Dec. 7, 1993).
Oil was discovered on Lubicon Cree land on Alberta, Canada, in 1979; betwen 1979 and 1983, more than 400 oil and gas wells were drilled within 15 miles of the traditional Lubicon community of Little Buffalo. The drilling generates more than $500 million in annual revenues for oil companies and the Alberta government. Between 1980 and 1995, $8 billion was generated by Unocal, Norcen, Nova, and Husky; Alberta receives 20 percent. Lubicon hunting has suffered; welfare has risen from 10 to 95 percent; birth defects, tuberculosis, alcoholism, and respiratory and skin diseases have appeared (Western Canada Wilderness Committee's Lubicon Campaign Report, Fall 1995). See also enttry for Unocal.
NUCLEAR METALS, INC.
2229 Main Street, Concord MA 01742
telephone (508) 369-5410
Depleted uranium penetrators (for "ordnance and accessories") accounted for 82% of 1991 revenues of $48 million; industrial metal powders (11 percent), and fabricated specialty metal powders (7 percent) (Worldscope database record).
NUCLEAR SUPPORT SERVICES, INC.
West Market Street, Campbelltown Pa 17010
telephone (717) 838-8125
Provides technical support personnel to assist electric utilities in the maintenance & operation of nuclear power plants; had 1991 sales of $71 million (Worldscope database record).