Corporate profiles compiled by George Draffan
Public Information Network, PO Box 95316, Seattle WA 98145-2316 USA
FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political and economic issues.
TAIGA FOREST PRODUCTS LTD
Subsidiary of Berjaya Group.
TAISHO PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD.
24-1, Takada, 3-chome, P.O. Box 111, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171, Japan, telephone (03) 3985-1111
Pharmaceuticals (93 percent of 1992 sales), toiletries, and consumer expendables.
There is a Taisho Electromex maquiladora in Mexico.
TAKENGON PULP & PAPER
Owned by PT Risjadson. Partner in the Indo Indrapuri pulp mill in Aceh, north Sumatra, Indonesia, with the Indian paper giant Ballarpur. The operation has access to about 165,000 hectares. Output will be exported to other Asian countries, including India (PPI: Pulp & Paper International, July 1992, p. 19).
TAMPA ELECTRIC COMPANY (TECO)
COAL FIRED UTILITY IN FLORIDA TO PAY U.S. $1 BILLION Tens of thousands of tons of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions will be prevented each year, thanks to a $1 billion agreement ending a federal lawsuit against Tampa Electric Company (TECO). The deal, which requires upgrades to two out of date coal fired power plants, could influence the outcome of additional lawsuits against six more coal fired utilities, representing 32 aging power plants in 10 states. TECO's Gannon Station plant is slated to be converted from coal to natural gas by 2004. The agreement resolves a lawsuit brought by the U.S. Justice Department, on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) against Tampa Electric (TECO). As part of the settlement, TECO will convert one power plant from burning coal to cleaner natural gas, and install new pollution control devices at another plant. The cost of these changes, when fully implemented by 2010, will be "approximately $1 billion," said EPA Administrator Carol Browner. As a result, more than 120,000 tons of smog causing nitrogen dioxide and acid rain forming sulfur dioxide emissions will be prevented each year by 2010, Browner said. TECO did not admit to any violations in the 55 page settlement with EPA, but agreed to pay a $3.5 million civil penalty for past pollution, and invest $10 million in environmental mitigation and short term pollution control measures. (Cat Lazaroff, Environmental News Service (ENS), March 1, 2000, http://ens.lycos.com/ens/mar2000/2000L-03-01-07.html
Tata Sons Ltd., Bombay House, 24, Homi Mody St., Bombay 400 001 India
telephone 011-91-22-204-9131 fax 011-91-22-204-8187
101 Park Ave, New York NY 10178
telephone 212-557-8131 fax 212-557-7987
A family empire of some 80 public and private companies with annual sales of $4 billion in electricity, trucks, food, soap and cosmetics, chemicals, textiles, and hotels. Has trading and manufacturing operations in the UK, the U.S., Switzerland, Netherlands, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Companies include Andhra valley Power Supply, Indian Hotels (including the Lexington in New York and the Executive House in Chicago), Tata Chemicals, Voltas Ltd. Has joint ventures with Unisys, Timken,
Oki, Schlumberger, Honeywell, American Express, and Siemens (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1992, p. 292).
Tata financed Gandhi's ashrams (Gary Snyder interview in In the Footsteps of Gandhi).
Tata Group has a $20 million 50/50 joint venture with IBM to make PS/2 computers and software in India (Fortune, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 129).
TEAK TRADERS INC
Box 158, Kirkland, WA 98033
Teak lumber, paneling, and millwork of all sizes and kinds, including hotel packages (Crow's 1988-1989).
A $9 billion telecommunications venture founded in 1990 to link Internet, video, voice, and digital data communications by launching 288 low-orbit satellites by 2002. Teledesic is owned by Microsoft's Bill Gates (33%), cellular phone pioneer Craig McCaw (33%), Boeing (10%, and the project's prime contractor for design, construction, and launch), and Saudi Arabian prince Alwaleed Bin Talal (14%, acquired in April 1998) (Seattle Times, Apr. 14, 1998, p. D1).
Oil concessions in the Ecuadorian Oriente (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 50, July 1990).
Trona (soda ash) mining in the Green River Basin, Wyoming (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 6).
TERAMAJU Sdn Bhd
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
One of the top ten exporters of plywood from Malaysia in 1991 (Asian Timber, April 1992, p. 8).
TEXACO (merged into Chevron in 2001; see entry for CHEVRON)
2000 Westchester Ave, White Plains, NY 10650
telephone 914-253-4000 Fax. 914-253-7753
In the 1930s, Texaco leased a million acres of oil-rich wetlands in Louisiana. Texaco and Chevron own Caltex, which began overseas marketing in Saudi Arabia in 1936, and which now operates in 58 countries in Asia and the Pacific Rim (see Caltex entry). At the time of the 1990 Persian Gulf War, nearly two-thirds of Texaco's refinery output relied on Saudi Arabian crude oil. Bought Getty Oil for $8.6 billion in 1983, in a takeover battle with Pennzoil that nearly cost Texaco bankruptcy. Texaco had 1990 sales of $41 billion (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1992, p. 515).
Chevron's Texaco acquisition approved. After almost a year, the Federal Trade Commission finally approved Chevron's $39-billion purchase of Texaco (which includes $6 billion of assumed debt). However, until shareholders approve, and also, before a huge asset sale is completed, the merger will not be completely finalized. Federal regulators made the asset sale a condition that must be met for final approval. The new firm will be named ChevronTexaco Corp., creating the second-largest oil firm in the nation and the fourth-largest in the world. (Worldoil.com, October 2001).
Texaco's Star Enterprise is a joint venture to produce Saudi crude; Texaco's Frontier group is involved in oil exploration worldwide, especially in South Amercian and the Pacific Rim (Hoover's Handbook of American Business 1993).
Oil exploration in Ecuador (The Ecologist 19(6):219-224 (1989). The Texaco-built Trans-Ecuadorean Pipeline has spilled 17 million gallons of oil in the Ecuadorean Amazon over the past 18 years (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 58, Mar. 1991). The area is home to 300,000 Quichua, Siona, Secoya, Cofan, Shuar, and Huaroni people (Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1993, p. 15). See also Judith Kimerling's Amazon Crude; and "Ecuador, Texaco Sign Weak Cleanup Pact," World Rainforest Report, July-Sept. 1995, 12(3). Inrmation on Ecuador issues include After the Gold Rush. 800-page book documenting damage caused by Texaco's operations in Ecuador from 1972 to 1992. For a website by Frente Para La Defensa De La Amazonía that describes the plight of the people of the rainforest caused by Texaco, see After the Gold Rush.
David Talbot, Suit Claims Texaco Polluted Ecuador, Boston Sunday Herald, August 29, 1999.
Eyal Press, Texaco On Trial, The Nation, May 31, 1999.
Diana Jean Schemo, Ecuadoreans Want Texaco to Clear Toxic Residue, New York Times, February 1, 1998.
Laurie Goering, Pollution test case pits Ecuadorans against U.S. firm, Chicago Tribune, June 25, 1996.
Jack Epstein, Rain Forest Dwellers Suing Texaco, San Francisco Chronicle, August 29, 1995.
Katherine Ellison, Taking On Big Oil, Miami Herald, August 20, 1995.
Michael Parish and William R. Long, Villagers Standing Up to Big Oil, Los Angeles Times, November 6, 1994.
David Holmstrom, "Texaco Has Left Ecuador, But Its Impact Remains, Christian Science Monitor, March 25, 1994.
Panama and Texaco signed a contract for oil exploration in La Amistad International Park on Panama's Caribbean coast. The park is shared with Costa Rica, and includes Teribe and Guaymi tribal lands. The director of Panama's National Park Service resigned over the issue (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 20).
Texaco began oil exploration in Burma in 1989 (Dara O'Rourke articles in Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1992 and June 1993). The Texaco pipeline (Ranong and Prachuab Khiri Khan to Thailand border electric plants), scheduled for completion in 1999, is to follow the route of the Death Railway built by the Japanese during World War II (Burma Issues, Sept. 1993, p. 4).
China has leased East China Sea areas to Chevron, Texaco, and a venture between Cluff Oil Ltd. of Hong Kong and Primeline Petroleum Corporation (Wall Street Journal, Dec. 16, 1993, p. A14).
In 1958, Shell discovered petroleum near the Niger River delta in Nigeria; since then, Shell has extracted $30 billion worth of oil and natural gas. Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and other oil companies generate 80 percent of Nigeria's annual revenue. Since 1993, the local Ogoni people have been suppressed; 20 Ogoni towns have been destroyed, 1,800 people killed, and 50,000 left homeless. The Nigerian government's hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni peoples activists on November 10, 1995. Shell has been condemned for its role; over 300 people protested at Shell's New York headquarters on November 13, 1995. A few days after the execution, Shell announced a new $4 billion Nigerian natural gas plan; ELF, and Agit are also involved. (Interview with Human Rights Watch on National Public Radio on Nov. 16; RAN Action Alert, No. 115, Dec. 1995).
See also Caltex, a partnership between Texaco and Chevron operating in 58 countries.
801 Travis St. Suite 2100, Houston TX 77002
Texaco Crude has a 2.4 million acre (at $10 an acre) exploration contract in and near the Pacaya-Samiria reserve in the Peruvian Amazon, in partnership with the national PetroPeru (Rainforest Action Network Action Alert, No. 60, May 1991; New York Times, July 2, 1991).
In September 1991, Peru announced that Texas Crude had decided against an exploration contract for Lot 61, most of which lies within the Pacaya-Samiria reserve, partially because of threat of legal action by the Peruvian Environmental Law Society (SPDA) (Earth Island Journal, v.7, n.1, 1992, p. 19).
High Ridge Park, Bldg 2, Stamford CT 0605
Offices in Aurora and Raleigh NC, Newgulf TX. The Tg Soda Ash Division is located in Granger, Wyoming.
Owned by Elf Aquitaine.
Texasgulf is involved in Panamanian copper mining with Canadian Javelin and RTZ (see Chris N. Gjording's Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guayami Indians and Mining Multinational in Panama, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991, and a review of the book in Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1991, p. 33-34).
THAI PLYWOOD CP LTD.
An enterprise of the Thai Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives; signed a contract to buy 900,000 cubic meters of timber from Cambodia over five years to make plywood and hardboard; the operation will involve three Thai companies with logging concessions in Cambodia. Thai Plywood was recently granted a loan from the state-run Krung Thai Bank to expand its eucalyptus fibreboard operations (Asian Timber, Mar. 1992, p. 8; May 1992, p. 8; and June 1992, p. 7).
7400 Edmund St., Philadelphia, PA 19136
Mahogany and teak (Rainforest Action Network database, August 1989).
51, Esplanade du General-de-Gaulle, 92800 Puteau, France
Thomson-CSF, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 814, Arlington VA 22202
"The world's #2 defense electronics firm (after GM Hughes)". Thomson is 82 percent owned by the French government. The Thomson-CSF subsidiary is 60 percent publicly owned. (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 466-467).
Smelter at Cato Ridge, South Africa. Processes mercury and other toxic wastes. South Africa's Dept. of Water Affairs has ordered Thor to halt mercury processing (Earth Island Journal, v.7, n.2, 1992, p. 3).
THREE GORGES DAM
Long-running scheme to dam the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Could uproot a million people and flood a hundred towns. The reservoir would be 350 miles long and 500 feet deep. Supposed to generate 17 million kilowatts, forty percent more than the current world's largest, Itaipu in Brazil. The dam was first called for by Sun Yat-sen in 1923. Yangtze floods in 1991 killed 2,300 people and led to renewed interest by the the National People's Congress, which decided to proceed with the dam in March 1992. Construction could begin in 1993 and cost $11 billion. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation had been supplying technical assistance since the 1940s. Proponents say the dam would ease flooding, and make navigation to undeveloped provinces possible. China is hoping for World Bank financing (Lena H. Sun, "China dam looms with impact of a second Great Wall," Los Angeles Times/Seattle Times, Mar. 9, 1992; see also "The U.S. demands a fair shot at building a huge dam," Business Week, May 21, 1984).
In the late 1980s, just east of the Three Gorges at the confluence with the Huanghai River, the Gezhouba Dam was being completed. Begun on Mao's birthday (December 26) in 1970, the Gezhouba is designed to regulate the river above and below the dam, aid navigation with two locks, and provide 2.7 million kilowatts of hydroelectricity. At 130 feet above riverbed, it is a relatively low dam, and therefore raises the water level very little compared to the projected 200-meter height of the Three Gorges Dam. (Yangtze: Nature, History, and the River, by Lyman P. Van Slyke, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1988).
In 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation cancelled its contract with the Chinese government to provide technical assistance; the World Bank says it will ot support the project; a September 22, 1995 memo from the Clinton administration to the U.S. Export-Import Bank recommended against U.S. aid, citing environmental and human rights concerns (World Rivers Review, Nov. 1995, p. 10). In May 1996 the Ex-Im bank announced it would not help finance the Three Gorges Dam.
From Steven Benson Photography - The Cost of Power in China: The Three Gorges Dam and the Yangtze River Valley:
"I first learned of the Three Gorges Dam while visiting China to lecture and photograph in 1996. When I returned to the U.S. I began researching the subject. The more information I gathered about this project the more astonishing it became to me. To build a dam across the Yangtze River 610 feet high and 1.3 miles long creating a reservoir 50 miles longer than Lake Michigan in a densely populated area struck me as an example of how flaws in our perceptual system can cause immeasurable harm. The largest concrete object on the planet will ultimately force more than 2 million people to vacate their ancestral homes and disrupt the lives of the 30 million people living in the reservoir region. In addition to this social cost, the reservoir will cover 8,000 known archaeological sites, 250,000 acres of China's most fertile farmland and 1,600 factories, which have been burying toxic materials for the past 50 years. "Scientists fear that lead, mercury, arsenic and dozens of other poisons, including radioactive waste, will leach out into the reservoir destroying aquatic life. 75 million people depend on the river for fishing and farming.
"According to the Chinese government there are three reasons to build this dam; to generate 11% of the countries electricity (the equivalent of 18 nuclear power plants) reducing its need for coal burning facilities; to control the Yangtzes devastating annual floods which have claimed the lives of more than 300,000 people this century; and to improve the standard of living in one of the most impoverished parts of the country by allowing 10,000 ton ships to move goods in and out of the heart of China. Unfortunately, experts all over the world do not believe this dam will accomplish any of these goals.
"The idea to dam the Yangtze River in the vicinity of the Three Gorges has been a point of contention in China for the past 80 years. It was discussed initially in 1919 by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, considered to be the father of the Chinese Republic. The dam was also of great interest to his successors including Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek followed by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. The project never generated strong enough support so it was continually set aside.
"The Three Gorges Dam project was being considered yet again in the 1980's. It was one of the issues on the minds of the Democratic Reform demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in 1989. In the wake of the disastrous events of this protest the Chinese government needed something 'big' for the people of China to be proud of and to rally around. The collapse of the Soviet Union was an additional motivating factor that made it possible, in 1992, for then Premier Li Peng, a Russian trained hydro-engineer, to push the project through the National Peoples Congress with one third of the delegates voting against the dam or abstaining. Whenever a delegate attempted to speak out against the dam the microphone was turned off.
"Construction of the dam began in 1994. In June of 2003 the reservoir will begin to fill reaching a depth of 425 feet, and 575 feet by 2009. What was intended to be a grand proclamation of China's emergence into the modern world is rapidly becoming a monumental disaster due to poor planning, inaccurate or falsified estimates and statistics, severe construction problems, residential and industrial pollution, rampant official corruption and growing civil unrest.
"My purpose in traveling the length of the area to be flooded, from Chongqing downstream to the construction site of the dam, was to create a lasting photographic document of a part of the planet destined to disappear, and to honor the people of this mythic valley that has inspired poets, artists and philosophers for countless centuries. It is also my hope that this body of work will function as a warning to future generations." (www.stevenbensonphoto.com)
Caufield, Catherine. Tainted Bonds: American Underwriters Undermine U.S. Government Policy, Chinese Lives, and Environmental Reason. Whole Earth, Spring 1998, pp. 88-89. (In January 1997, Lehman Brothers, Smith Barney, JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley, and BancAmerica Securtities underwrote a $330 million Three Gorges bond issue in the U.S. and Europe).
Cushman, John H., Jr. Ex-Im Bank Refuses Loan Backing for Big China Dam, New York Times, May 31, 1996.
Cooper, Helene. Ex-Im Bank Snubs Chinese Dam Project: Decision is a Major Setback for U.S. Forms Seeking to Bid on Three Gorges, Wall Street Journal, May 31, 1996. (Mentions Caterpillar and Rotec).
Dai Qing, Probe International, and International Rivers Network. 1998. The River Dragon Has Come! The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. 240 pp.
Yangtze Farewell. Photographs by Steven Benson, essay by Penelope Grenoble O'Malley. Orion, Nov/Dec 2003.
THUNDER BASIN COAL CO.
5665 Clareton Hwy, Wright WY 82732
Operates the Black Thunder, the largest coal mine in North America, on an 8,000-acre lease south of Gillette, Wyoming. It produces 31 million tons per year, and is likely to be expanded (Jules Loh, AP, Seattle Times, June 28 1992).
One of 50 Thai companies logging in Burma. Owned by a military official. Reported Burma income of $112 million in 1991 (World Rainforest Report, No. 21, Feb. 1992, p. 28-29).
Importer of rainforest timber form Southeast Asia; target of civil disobedience by the Melbourne Rainforest Action Group (Earth First! Journal, Aug. 1, 1990, p. 16).
TIMBRAZ ("Timber of Brazil")
848 Brickwell Ave. # 430, Miami, FL 33131
Box 11337, Mobile, AL 36611
Subsidiary of the Iochpe Group, a Brazilian conglomerate that owns banks, paper mills, computer, and harvesting equipment companies. Exports hardwoods to the U.S., Canada, Japan, Mexico, and Europe.
Has sawmills at the mouth of the Amazon near Afua, Brazil that produce 18 million board feet a year. Mahogany, banak, red louro, andiroba, and other hardwoods. Sent to its Chickasaw, Alabama warehouse every two months. Sales agents in Hickory, North Carolina (Crow's 1988-1989; National Hardwood Magazine, Nov. 1988; and Mar. 1991, p. 40-41).
In January 2000, America Online agreed to buy Time Warner for about $178 billion in stock and assumed debt.
TOKAI BANK, LTD.
21-24, Nishiki 3-chome, Naka-ku Nagoya 460, Japan
telephone (052) 211-1111
TOKAI CARBON CO., LTD.
2-3 Kita-aoyama 1-chome, Minato-ku Tokyo 107, Japan
telephone (03) 3746-5100
Carbon black electrodes accounted for 73% of 1991 sales; artificial graphite electrodes 15 percent; and fine carbon and others 12 percent (Worldscope database record).
4-12, Tokiwa-cho 1-chome , Shizuoka-city Shizuoka 420, Japan
Gas, oil and related equip and supply works accounted for 65 percent of 1992 revenues; real estate and building materials, 22 percent; others, 13 percent (Worldscope database record).
TOKAI KAGU KOG. CO.
Wooden furniture operation at Pulogadung, Jakarta, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).
TOKAI KANKO CO., LTD.
1-17, Takanawa 2-chome , Minato-ku Tokyo 108, Japan
telephone (03) 5488-1010
City hotel operation accounted for 43 percent of 1991 revenues; resort hotels, 33 percent; restaurants, 18 percent; real estate and others, 6 percent (Worldscope database record).
TOKAI KOGYO CO., LTD.
4-4 Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan
telephone (03) 3255-7188
1991 revenues were derived from construction (92 percent); real estate (7 percent), and others (1 percent) (Worldscope database record).
TOKAI PULP CO., LTD.
4379 Banchi, Shimada-city Shizuoka Pref. 427, Japan
telephone (0547) 36-5157
Paperboards accounted for 54 percent of 1992 revenues, papers 35 percent, processed paper products 6 percent, pulp 3 percent, and others 2 percent (Worldscope database record).
TOKAI RIKA CO., LTD.
1 Noda Toyoda-aza, Ouguchi-cho, Tamba-gun Aichi Pref 480-01, Japan
telephone (0587) 95-5211
Automobile parts: switches accounted for 39 percent of 1992 revenues, seat belts 15 percent, key/locks 12 percent, and others 34 percent (Worldscope database record).
TOKAMIURA NUCLEAR FACILITY see Sumitomo
TOKYO BOEKI DEVELOPMENT
Along with Far East Energy Inc., part of a group planning to develop energy reserves in eastern Siberia. There was an accord with the regional Yakutsk government in December 1991, and a contract signed with the Russian government on March 18, 1992. A $10 to $14 billion investment is envisioned, with feasibility studies, pipeline construction, and oil and gas drilling.
TOKYOMENKA AMERICA INC.
Japanese corporation operating in Sarawak, Malaysia (Rainforest Action Movement, Ann Arbor, Michigan).
TOMAGO ALUMINUM CO. PTY. LTD.
Western Pacific Constructors is a joint venture between Fluor Daniel and CMPS to provide engineering and construction services to the primary aluminum industry in Australia and New Zealand. Western's first project is a contract with Tomago to expand an aluminum smelter near Newcastle, Australia, to be completed by 1993 (Mining Magazine, Aug. 1991, p. 106).
TOP PROSPECTS Sdn Bhd (TPSB)
Controlled by the son of former Sabah Chief Minister Datuk Harris Salleh. TPSB has rights to two million hectares of natural forest in West Kalimantan, along the vorder with Sarawak; the 35 year deal could stretch to 105 years. The company claims it will log and replant with plantation species only 300,000 hectares; this is expected to take ten years and involve about 17 million cubic meters of wood. About 400 kilometers of road will be built to gain access to the timber; 1,000 families will be relocated (Asian Timber, June 1993, p. 7).
Toshiba America, 9740 Irvine Blvd, Irvine, CA 97218
Toshiba International, 350 California St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94104
Toshiba manufactures electronic appliances and systems and sells information and communication systems; $37 billion in sales; was number 25 of the 1993 Fortune 500; 24 overseas offices and 84 overseas subsidiaries (Special Libraries, Fall 1994, p. 277).
Hitachi, Sumitomo, and Toshiba have been awarded contracts to supply turbines for the World Bank-backed Narmada Dam Project of 30 major and 3000 smaller dams in Gujarat state, India. The project could eventually flood 865,000 acres of forest and 500,000 acres of farmland and cause the relocation of a million people. The Japanese government is also providing financing (Seattle Times, Apr. 20, 1990).
Toshiba is also associated through a zaibatsu with Mitsui and Toyota.
24 Cours Michelet, 92800 Puteaux, France
telephone (1) 42 91 40 00
Total Raffinage Distribution SA, 84 Rue De Villiers, 92300 Levallois-Perret, France
telephone (1) 74 38 00 00
Total Petroleum, 400 3rd Avenue SW, Calgary Alberta T2P 4H2, Canada
telephone (403) 267-3222
Total Petroleum, 1490 NW 86th St, Des Moines IA 50311
Refined oil products and natural gas accounted for 88 percent of Total's 1991 revenues; chemicals, 10 percent; coal mining and other, 2 percent; 36 percent of 1991 sales were in France; 22 percent in the rest of Europe; 12 percent in North and South America; almost 6 percent in Africa; and 24 percent in the Far East and other (Worldscope database record).
Total is drilling in southern Oriente area of Ecuador; exploratory oil drilling contracts with Indonesia were signed in 1989 (Oil & Gas Journal, Aug. 7, 1989, p. 3).
Total began oil exploration in Burma in 1989 (Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor, Oct. 1992 and June 1993). Total has discovered 10 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in its offshore concession (Burma Issues, Nov. 1993, p. 6).
TOYA MENKA KAISHA LTD.
Has a 60,000-hectare concession and sawtimber operation in east Kalimantan, Indonesia (SKEPHI, 1990, Selling Our Common Heritage).
1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi-ken 471, Japan
Associated through a zaibatsu with Mitsui (World Rainforest Report, v.6,n.2, 1990).
Partners in the Camberwell Coal Joint Venture include Navidale Pty Ltd., Toyota Tsusho Mining (Australia), and Dia Coal Mining Australia. Open cut coal mine opened in May 1991 in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia. The coal is exported to Japan via the Main Northern Railway, which connects to Newcastle Port (Mining Magazine, July 1991, p. 20).
TRANSREDES see Gas Oriente Boliviano
TRILLIUM CORPORATION click here for detailed profile
Cordata Business Park, Bellingham WA
Bayside Ltd. "$42 million invested in Bayside. Ltd., our South American forestry affiliate, by a Beacon Group syndicate." Beacon Group is a New York-based partnership with a minority interest in Bayside. Forrestal Trillium is Bayside's Chilean affiliate; Lenga Patagonia was acquired by Bayside in 1994. Former Plum Creek Timber vice president Robert Manne is Bayside's head (Trillium Corporation Report 1995, p. 8, 14).
Lenga Patagonia S.A. (Rio Grande, Argentina). Acquired by Trillium in 1994; owns 75,000 acres in Argentina (Trillium Corporation Report 1995, p. 8).
Forestal Trillium Ltd. In 1993, Trillium bought 625,000 acres on Tierra del Fuego, across the Straits of Magellan from mainland Chile; the "Rio Condor Project" is Trillium's name for its self-proclaimed sustainable forestry project there. Rand Jack, formerly working with the Whatcom County Land Trust to transfer environmentally sensitive Trillium proiperties to Washington State, Whatcom County, and Bellingham, was hired as an "independent Steward" to monitor Trillium's timber cutting in Chile. Trillium intends to build one or more sawmills on Tierra del Fuego (Rand, Jack. Rio Condor, an experiment in ecology: new land steward hopes to combine sustainable forestry, environmental rules. Seattle Times (commentary/opinion), Apr. 10, 1994, p. B5).
TROPICAL FOREST PRODUCTS
1299 4th St # 509, San Rafael, CA 94901
"Offering all species from Indonesia and Malaysia" (Crow's 1988-1989).
TROPICAL WOODS INTERNATIONAL INC.
209A W. Hwy 246, Buellton, CA 93427
Meranti, kapur, agathis, keruing, ramin plywood, paneling, and lumber (Crow's 1988-1989).
TRUE GEOTHERMAL CO.
Box 2360, Casper, WY 82602
H.A. True, Jr., president
Geothermal development on Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, to develop up to 500 megawatts for export from the Big Island to O'ahu via a 200-mile undersea cable. Wao Kele O Puna is a World Heritage Ecosystem rainforest; native Hawaiians use the volcano for religious, cultural, and subsistence activities.
1985 Wao Kele O PUna was swapped from protected public lands to the Campbell Estate.
December 1989 civil disobedience.
March 1990 protest of over 1000 people.
June 1991 blowout of a well. State bans drilling.
February 1992, Hawaiian officials removed the eight-month ban on geothermal drilling. Sixty-five more arrests followed (World Rainforest Report, April/June 1992, p. 5).
March 1994, True announced it was pulling out of Wao Kele O Puna, but the State Board of Land and Natural Resopurces had approved a bailout providing resource monitoring and assessment research; the Campbell Estate was negotiating with another eothermal developer.
Many other companies are involved; see entries for California Energy Co., Campbell Estate, Hawaii Electric Industries, Mid-Pacific, Mitsubishi, Ormat, Southern California Edison, and Sumitomo.
Akwesasne Notes (Fall 1989, p. 24).
Catalyst (v.7 n.1 (1990).
E Magazine (Mar/Apr. 1990, p. 21-23).
Earth First! Journal (May 1, 1990 and August 1, 1990, p. 10).
Earth First! Journal (May 1, 1990).
Earth Island Journal (Winter 1990, p. 22-23).
Environment Reporter Current Developments (Jan. 5, 1990, p. 1514).
New York Times (Jan.26, 1990).
Rainforest Action Network Action Alert (No. 39, July 1989; No. 45, Feb. 1990; and No. 69, Feb. 1992; No. 96, April 1994.).
San Francisco Chronicle (April 3, 1990).
San Francisco Chronicle This World magazine (Oct. 1, 1989, p. 9).
Time Magazine, Aug 13, 1990, p. 68.
Tropical Echoes (Rainforest Action Movement, Ann Arbor, Spring Solstice Edition, 1990).
World Rainforest Report (Jan. 1991, p. 1,9).
World Rainforest Report v.6 n.2 (1990).
Pele Defense Fund
Rainforest Action Network, San Francisco
1900 Richmond Road, Cleveland OH 44124
Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, name changed in 1965. High-technology company involved in microprocessor, computer-aided design and manufacturing, composite materials, fiber optics, lasers, and satellites; its products are used in the automotive, space and military, and information systems industries; the U.S. government accounted for more than a third of TRW's 1991 sales of $4 billion; TRW operates a major credit reporting system. TRW has 144 manufacturing facilities in 29 states and 85 facilities in 17 other countries (Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993, p. 544-545).
The Council on Economic Priorities produced an environmental report on TRW in 1993 ($20 from CEP, 30 Irving Place, New York NY 10003, 1-800-729-4237).
Hydroelectric project in Brazil; it supplies power for the Grand Carajas mining projects. Displaced 15,000 people, including six tribal groups. Some 2000 square kilometers of uncleared forest were flooded; the dam produces 8000 megawatts of electricity.
See Barbara J. Cummings' Dam the Rivers, Damn the People: Development and Resistance in Amazonian Brazil (Earthscan, London, 1990) and the Journal of Biogeography 15:67-78, 1988.
TUMEN RIVER DELTA DEVELOPMENT
China, Russia, North Korea
The Tumen River runs 516 kilometers between China, North Korea, and Russia. The delta is a pristine, 400-square-kilometer wetlands with 30 fresh lakes. The Russian Far East Marine Reserve is adjacent. Water reallocation, heavy industry, dams, and massive population influx (from the current 150,000 people to a million people by the year 2010) would destroy much of the area's natural features. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has called for eventual investment of $30 billion, but has allocated only $150,000 for impact studies, saying that social and environmental impacts are up to the countries involved. The countries want UNDP to do the impact analysis, and are unprepared to do it themselves.
Many countries are becoming involved. China seeks an outlet to Sea of Japan. Finland seeks a rail link for exports to Europe. Mongolia has iron ore, coal, copper, gold, oil, and hydroelectric potential. South Korea and Japan would like to invest.
At the TRADP's inaugural meeting in 1992, the UNDP) allocated an initial $5.2 million to the project (New York Times, Feb. 16, 1992, p. 8(N), p. 18(L); Christian Science Monitor, May 19, 1992, p. 4; East Asian Executive Reports, Feb. 15, 1992, 14(2): 9, 19-22; Far Eastern Economic Review, Jan. 16, 1992, 155(2): 16-20).
The first stage of Tumen development would involve a 1,000 square kilometer area encompassing Najin in North Korea, Hunchun in China and Posyet in Russia. A second stage will involve developing a duty-free shipping zone from North Korea's Chungjin port to Yanji City in China's Jilin province. The development would eventually involve ports, airports, railroad and road connections, and an urban center ("Tumen River project: Boondoggle or bonanza?", by Denise Chai, Business Korea, Aug. 1993, 11(2): 25-29; "Asia's last great frontier: Are American companies ready for the gold rush of the 21st century?", by Joseph P. Manguno, International Business, Apr. 1993, 6(4): 42-43; an interview with UNDP project officer Fan Jiang, in "TRADP speaks out," by Ann Amelia Flynn, China Business Review, Mar/Apr. 1993, 20(2): 9).
In 1993 plans progressed, with UNDP-sponsored meetings, alternatives and lobbying by the six nations involved, and a UNDP-brokered agreement signed in Moscow in September by Russia, China, Mongolia, and the Koreas (Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, May 12, 1993, p. PRC 001; Aug. 6, 1993, p. PRC 001; Aug. 18, 1993, p. PRC 001; Nov. 2, 1993, p. SOV 015; and Nov. 12, 1993, p. EAS 042; and Seattle Times, July 7, 1993, p. D1).
Tyndales and Urgales are two Russian-North Korean joint ventures in the Khabarovsk and Amur regions of Eastern Siberia. In the past 25 years, North Koreans working under slave-like conditions have clearcut about 700,000 hectares of forest. It is believed that 15,000 to 20,000 North Koreans are still working there, though the Russian government refused to extend the agreement in 1993, hinting that private corporations from other countries, including the U.S., the UK, Germany, and Finland may invest in the projects (Taiga News, Jan. 1994, p. 6).
Began oil exploration in Burma in 1989. Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the agency overseeing oil and gas development in Burma, is controlled by the military regime SLORC; since 1989, MOGE has signed multimillion dollar contracts with many foreign oil companies. A subsidiary of the Thai national oil company, PTT Exploration and Production, has proposed developing natural gas in Burma's Gulf of Mataban and shipping it to Thailand through an undersea pipeline. (See article by Dara O'Rourke, "Oil in Burma: Fueling Oppression," Multinational Monitor 13(10):7-11, Oct. 1992).
Political connection with Bill Clinton.
Bought Arctic Alaska Fisheries in 1992 (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 10, 1993, p. B10).
Its Arctic Fisheries subsidiary was fined for illegal dumping fish wastes from 1987 to 1991; see entry for Arctic Fisheries.